PM2.5           11-28-2018    Victor
 Goal:  Use Peru Antracite to Quick Reducing PM-2.5  in Taiwan Power Plants & Industrial Furances  
                                 which places willing to pay a affordable higher Price (comparing to existing Coal)



   Action Plan  Working Record    Coal Spec    Sesuveca-Spec   Taiwan Power Plant (Kaohsiung)    Indonesian Steam    Coal Assay
  PM2.5  study   PM2.5 -  in Coal      73 pages PM2.5 Study Report in Power Plant    download      

      sulfur dioxide    (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and     ammonia          (NH3).
           Soot, or black carbon, is made up of tiny carbon particulate matter

PM2.5  study  

1000 MWe coal plant uses 9000 tonnes of coal per day,

Environmental Impacts
main article
Coal power plants have many associated environmental impacts on the local ecosystem.

Air Pollution
The burning of coal releases many pollutants - oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SOx) - and particulate matter.
They also emit greenhouse gases, such as         carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4),
which are known to contribute to global warming and climate change.
To help stunt the emission of these, power plants require technology to reduce the output of these harmful molecules.[9]

Water Use/Pollution
Large quantities of water are often needed to remove impurities from coal,[10] in the process is known as coal washing.
For instance, in China, around one-fifth of the water used in the coal industry is used for this process.[11]
This process helps reduce air pollution, as it eliminates around 50% of the ash content in the coal. This results in less sulfur dioxide (SOx) being produced, along with less carbon dioxide (CO2) due to higher thermal efficiencies.[9]

When power plants remove water from the environment, fish and other aquatic life can be affected, along with animals relying on these sources.[10] Pollutants also build up in the water that power plants use, so if this water is discharged back into the environment it can potentially harm wildlife there.[10]

The discharge of water from the power plants and coal washing requires monitoring and regulation. Visit the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for more information on this.     Coal Assay  

Coal assay
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia       Jump to navigationJump to search

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Syntax issues Please help improve this article if you can. (September 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Question book-new.svg
This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (September 2011)
Coal analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals.
These methods are used primarily to determine the suitability of coal for coking, power generation or for iron ore smelting in the manufacture of steel.

1    Chemical properties of coal
1.1    Moisture
1.2    Volatile matter
1.3    Ash
1.4    Fixed carbon
2    Physical and mechanical properties
2.1    Relative density
2.2    Particle size distribution
2.3    Float-sink test
2.4    Abrasion testing
3    Special combustion tests
3.1    Specific energy
3.2    Ash fusion test
3.3    Crucible swelling index (free swelling index)
4    Coal classification by rank
5    References
6    External links

1. Chemical properties of coal
Coal comes in four main types or ranks: lignite or brown coal, bituminous coal or black coal, anthracite and graphite. Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) and carbon content.

Moisture is an important property of coal, as all coals are mined wet.
Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analysed quantitatively. Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal:

Surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles or macerals
Hygroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the microfractures of the coal
Decomposition moisture: water held within the coal's decomposed organic compounds
Mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays
Total moisture is analysed by loss of mass between an untreated sample and the sample once analysed. This is achieved by any of the following methods;

Heating the coal with toluene
Drying in a minimum free-space oven at 150 °C (302 °F) within a nitrogen atmosphere
Drying in air at 100 to 105 °C (212 to 221 °F) and relative loss of mass determined
Methods 1 and 2 are suitable with low-rank coals, but method 3 is only suitable for high-rank coals as free air drying low-rank coals may promote oxidation. Inherent moisture is analysed similarly, though it may be done in a vacuum.

Volatile matter
Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal, except for moisture, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. This is usually a mixture of short- and long-chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur. Volatile matter also evaluate the adsorption application of an activated carbon. The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. In Australian and British laboratories this involves heating the coal sample to 900 ± 5 °C (1650 ±10 °F) for 7 min.

Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon, oxygen, sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. It can also give an indication about the quality of coal. Ash content may be determined as air dried basis and on oven dried basis. The main difference between the two is that the latter is determined after expelling the moisture content in the sample of coal

Fixed carbon
The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test, above, from the original mass of the coal sample.

2. Physical and mechanical properties
Relative density
Relative density or specific gravity of the coal depends on the rank of the coal and degree of mineral impurity. Knowledge of the density of each coal play is necessary to determine the properties of composites and blends. The density of the coal seam is necessary for conversion of resources into reserves.

Relative density is normally determined by the loss of a sample's weight in water. This is best achieved using finely ground coal, as bulk samples are quite porous. To determine in-place coal tonnages however, it is important to preserve the void space when measuring the specific gravity.

Particle size distribution
The particle size distribution of milled coal depends partly on the rank of the coal, which determines its brittleness, and on the handling, crushing and milling it has undergone. Generally coal is utilised in furnaces and coking ovens at a certain size, so the crushability of the coal must be determined and its behaviour quantified. It is necessary to know these data before coal is mined, so that suitable crushing machinery can be designed to optimise the particle size for transport and use.

Float-sink test
Coal plies and particles have different relative densities, determined by vitrinite content, rank, ash value/mineral content and porosity. Coal is usually washed by passing it over a bath of liquid of known density. This removes high-ash value particle and increases the saleability of the coal as well as its energy content per unit volume. Thus, coals must be subjected to a float-sink test in the laboratory, which will determine the optimum particle size for washing, the density of the wash liquid required to remove the maximum ash value with the minimum work.

Float-Sink testing is achieved on crushed and pulverised coal in a process similar to metallurgical testing on metallic ore.

Abrasion testing
Abrasion is the property of the coal which describes its propensity and ability to wear away machinery and undergo autonomous grinding. While carbonaceous matter in coal is relatively soft, quartz and other mineral constituents in coal are quite abrasive. This is tested in a calibrated mill, containing four blades of known mass. The coal is agitated in the mill for 12,000 revolutions at a rate of 1,500 revolutions per minute.(I.E 1500 revolution for 8 min.) The abrasion index is determined by measuring the loss of mass of the four metal blades.

3. Special combustion tests
Specific energy
Aside from physical or chemical analyses to determine the handling and pollutant profile of a coal, the energy output of a coal is determined using a bomb calorimeter which measures the specific energy output of a coal during complete combustion. This is required particularly for coals used in steam generation.

Ash fusion test
The behaviour of the coal's ash residue at high temperature is a critical factor in selecting coals for steam power generation. Most furnaces are designed to remove ash as a powdery residue. Coal which has ash that fuses into a hard glassy slag known as clinker is usually unsatisfactory in furnaces as it requires cleaning. However, furnaces can be designed to handle the clinker, generally by removing it as a molten liquid.

Ash fusion temperatures are determined by viewing a moulded specimen of the coal ash through an observation window in a high-temperature furnace. The ash, in the form of a cone, pyramid or cube, is heated steadily past 1000 °C to as high a temperature as possible, preferably 1,600 °C (2,910 °F). The following temperatures are recorded;

Deformation temperature: This is reached when the corners of the mould first become rounded
Softening (sphere) temperature: This is reached when the top of the mould takes on a spherical shape.
Hemisphere temperature: This is reached when the entire mould takes on a hemisphere shape
Flow (fluid) temperature: This is reached when the molten ash collapses to a flattened button on the furnace floor.
Crucible swelling index (free swelling index)
The simplest test to evaluate whether a coal is suitable for production of coke is the free swelling index test. This involves heating a small sample of coal in a standardised crucible to around 800 degrees Celsius (1500 °F).
After heating for a specified time, or until all volatiles are driven off, a small coke button remains in the crucible. The cross sectional profile of this coke button compared to a set of standardised profiles determines the Free Swelling Index.

4. Coal classification by rank
See also: Coal § Ranks
Several international standards classify coals by their rank, where increasing rank corresponds to coal with a higher carbon content. The rank of coal is correlated with its geologic history, as described in Hilt's law.

In the ASTM system,
any coal with more than 69% fixed carbon is classified by its carbon and volatiles content.
Coal with less than 69% fixed carbon is classified by its heating value.
Volatiles and carbon are on a dry mineral free base;
heating value is based on the moisture content as mined, but without any free water.

The ISO has a coal ranking system that also ranks coals;
   the sub-divisions do not align with the ASTM standard.        PM2.5 -  in Coal

Particulates and coal

This article is part of the Coal Issues portal on SourceWatch, a project of CoalSwarm and the Center for Media and Democracy. See here for help on adding material to CoalSwarm.

Particulate matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, includes the tiny particles of fly ash and dust that are expelled from coal-burning power plants. Particulate pollution is a mixture of soot, smoke, and tiny particles formed in the atmosphere from
sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3). Fine particles are a mixture of a variety of different compounds and pollutants that originate primarily from combustion sources such as power plants, but also diesel trucks and buses, cars, etc. They are sometimes referred to as PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter - less than one-hundredth of the width of a human hair). Fine particles are either emitted directly from these combustion sources or are formed in the atmosphere through complex oxidation reactions involving gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) or nitrogen oxides (NOX). Among particles, fine particles are of gravest concern because they are so tiny that they can be inhaled deeply, thus evading the human lungs' natural defenses.[1]

1    U.S. Regulations
2    Health effects
2.1    Carcinogen
2.2    Other effects
2.3    CO2 and particulate matter
3    Health costs
3.1    EPA finds Clean Air Act benefits will add up to $2 trillion by 2020, mainly from PM regulations
4    Reports
4.1    2011 American Lung Association report on health effects
5    Soot and global warming
6    Resources
6.1    References
6.2    Related SourceWatch articles
6.3    External resources
U.S. Regulations

In 1923, the first electrostatic precipitator was employed in a coal plant, which used electrical fields to remove particulate matter from a boiler's flue gas, like static electricity causing dust to cling to certain types of materials. Electrostatic precipitators, along with baghouses (which work like large industrial-scale vacuum cleaners to capture ash and dust particles in felt or woven fabric bags), have been used to reduce the release of soot-forming particulate matter, but some still escapes, leading to negative health effects.[2]

The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards under the Clean Air Act for six principal pollutants, which are called "criteria" pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, lead, and carbon monoxide. After the EPA sets or revises each standard and a timeline for implementation, the responsibility for meeting the standard falls to the states. Each state must submit an EPA-approved plan that shows how it will meet the standards and deadlines. These state plans are known as State Implementation Plans (SIPs)." [3]

Since 1997 coarse (diameter greater than 2.5 μm) and fine (diameter between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μm) particles have been regulated by the EPA, but ultrafine particles (diameter less than 0.1 μm) remain unregulated.[4] Roughly 80% of the ash falls into an ash hopper, but the rest of the ash then gets carried into the atmosphere to become fly ash.[5]

A 2009 court ruling concluded that the EPA standards for the amount of soot permissible in the air on an annual average ignored the advice of scientific advisers by maintaining the standard established in 1997 and must be rewritten. That limit was 15 micrograms per cubic meter of air.[6]

In a motion filed on December 7, 2010, the EPA asked for an extension in the current court-ordered schedule for issuing the new rules, which would cut emissions of pollutants including mercury and soot. EPA is under court order to issue final rules on January 16, 2011, but is seeking to extend the schedule to finalize the rules by April 2012.[7]

On June 15, 2012, EPA proposed to lower standards for particulate matter to between 12 and 13 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3). The agency is also taking “public comment on alternative annual standard levels down to 11 μg/m3.”

In December 2012 the EPA issued its final soot rules, tightening the federal soot standards by 20 percent - the most protective measure laid out in its June 2012 draft rule (12 micrograms per cubic meter of air). The agency will determine which areas are out of attainment in 2014, and the communities will then have six years to comply. The EPA estimates that 66 of the nation’s 3,033 counties will be found in violation of the new standard. It projects seven — all in California — will still be out of compliance by 2020.[8]

Health effects
In October 2013 the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer said both air pollution and "particulate matter" would now be classified among its Group 1 human carcinogens. They cited data indicating that in 2010, over 220,000 deaths from lung cancer worldwide resulted from air pollution, and said there was also convincing evidence it increases the risk of bladder cancer. Depending on the level of exposure in different parts of the world, the risk was found to be similar to that of breathing in second-hand tobacco smoke.[9]

Other effects
Studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter is also related to an increase of respiratory and cardiac mortality. Particulate matter can irritate small airways in the lungs, which can lead to increased problems with asthma, chronic bronchitis, airway obstruction, and gas exchange. Several studies have also shown a correlation between coal-related air pollutants and stroke. In Medicare patients, ambient levels of PM2.5 have been correlated with cerebrovascular disease, and PM10 with hospital admission for ischemic stroke, which accounts for eighty-seven percent of all strokes. The size and chemical composition of these particles affects the impacts on human health. [10] [11]

According to a report by the Clean Air Task Force, the health effects from fine particle air pollution include death, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, asthma attacks, and a variety of lesser respiratory symptoms. Key findings include:[12][1]

Fine particle pollution from U.S. power plants cuts short the lives of over 30,000 people each year.
In more polluted areas, fine particle pollution can shave several years off its victims' lives.
Hundreds of thousands of Americans suffer from asthma attacks, cardiac problems and upper and lower respiratory problems associated with fine particles from power plants.
The elderly, children, and those with respiratory disease are most severely impacted by fine particle pollution from power plants.
According to the American Lung Association, particle pollution can damage the body in ways similar to cigarette smoking, helping explain why particle pollution can cause heart attacks and strokes. However, even short-term exposure to particle pollution can kill: peaks or spikes in particle pollution can last for hours to days. Deaths can occur on the very day that particle levels are high, or within one to two months afterward.[13]

The EPA (2010) has concluded that fine particle pollution poses serious health threats:[13]

Causes early death (both short-term and long-term exposure)
Causes cardiovascular harm (e.g. heart attacks, strokes, heart disease, congestive heart failure)
Likely to cause respiratory harm (e.g. worsened asthma, worsened COPD, inflammation)
May cause cancer
May cause reproductive and developmental harm
A 2010 yearlong Pittsburgh Post-Gazette investigation found that Allegheny and Westmoreland counties and the rest of southwestern Pennsylvania - which are near multiple coal plants - show higher mortality rates for multiple sclerosis. The newspaper notes that studies suggest particulate matter pollution can trigger, aggravate or cause relapses of the autoimmune disease.[14]

CO2 and particulate matter
A 2009 study, “Enhancement of Local Air Pollution by Urban CO2 Domes,” published in Environmental Science & Technology by Mark Z. Jacobson, found that domes of increased carbon dioxide concentrations – discovered to form above cities more than a decade ago – cause local temperature increases that in turn increase the amounts of local air pollutants, raising concentrations of health-damaging ground-level ozone as well as particulate matter in urban air.

According to Jacobson: "Warming increases water vapor, and both water vapor and higher temperatures increase ozone where the ozone is already high but have less effect where the ozone is low. Carbon dioxide domes over cities increase temperatures over the cities above and beyond the heat island effect, and these higher temperatures increase water vapor, and both higher water vapor and higher temperatures increase the rates of chemical air pollution production over cities relative to rural areas. The results suggest a causal nature of increased air pollution mortality due to increased carbon dioxide where the air pollution is already high. Thus, controlling CO2 emissions at the local level will reduce air pollution and the resulting air pollution mortality."

Jacobson’s estimates that “reducing local CO2 may reduce 300-1000 premature air pollution mortalities/yr in the U.S. and 50-100/yr in California, even if CO2 in adjacent regions is not controlled.”

Health costs
In 2010, Abt Associates issued a study commissioned by the Clean Air Task Force, a nonprofit research and advocacy organization, quantifying the deaths and other health effects attributable to fine particle pollution from coal-fired power plants.[15] The study found that over 13,000 deaths and tens of thousands of cases of chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis, asthma-related episodes and asthma-related emergency room visits, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, chronic lung disease, peneumonia each year are attributable to fine particle pollution from U.S. coal-fired power plants. Abt assigned a value of $7,300,000 to each 2010 mortality, based on a range of government and private studies. Valuations of illnesses ranged from $52 for an asthma episode to $440,000 for a case of chronic bronchitis.[16]

Click here to see the total estimated heath effects and costs for each U.S. coal power plant.

EPA finds Clean Air Act benefits will add up to $2 trillion by 2020, mainly from PM regulations

Avoided Health Impacts: 2010 and 2020 (projected)
According to an EPA report released in March 2011, "The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020", the annual dollar value of benefits of air quality improvements from 1990 to 2020 will reach a level of approximately $2.0 trillion in 2020. The benefits would be achieved as a result of Clean Air Act Amendment-related programs and regulatory compliance actions, estimated to cost approximately $65 billion by 2020.

Most of the benefits (about 85 percent) are attributable to reductions in premature mortality associated with reductions in ambient particulate matter: "as a result, we estimate that cleaner air will, by 2020, prevent 230,000 cases of premature mortality in that year" (Introduction). The remaining benefits are roughly equally divided among three categories of human health and environmental improvement: preventing premature mortality associated with ozone exposure; preventing morbidity, including acute myocardial infarctions and chronic bronchitis; and improving the quality of ecological resources and other aspects of the environment.

According to the report: "The very wide margin between estimated benefits and costs, and the results of our uncertainty analysis, suggest that it is extremely unlikely that the monetized benefits of the CAAA over the 1990 to 2020 period reasonably could be less than its costs, under any alternative set of assumptions we can conceive. Our central benefits estimate exceeds costs by a factor of more than 30 to one, and the high benefits estimate exceeds costs by 90 times. Even the low benefits estimate exceeds costs by about three to one."

2011 American Lung Association report on health effects
In March 2011, the American Lung Association released the report,
"Toxic Air: The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired Power Plants," on the hazardous air pollutants emitted from power plants.
Key findings from the report included:

Coal-fired power plants produce more hazardous air pollution in the United States than any other industrial pollution sources;
More than 400 coal-fired power plants located in 46 states across the country release in excess of 386,000 tons of hazardous air pollutants into the atmosphere each year;
Particulate matter pollution from power plants is estimated to kill approximately 13,000 people a year.
Most coal-fired plants are concentrated in the Midwest and Southeast.
Soot and global warming

Particulate pollution is a mixture of soot, smoke, and tiny particles formed in the atmosphere from
sulfur dioxide    (SO2),
nitrogen oxides (NOx) and
ammonia          (NH3).

Soot, or black carbon, is made up of tiny carbon particulate matter
that contributes to global warming by absorbing heat in the atmosphere and reducing albedo, the reflection of sunlight, when deposited on snow and ice. In a paper published in May 2008 in Nature Geoscience, researchers found that black carbon soot may play a larger role than previously thought in global warming.[17] A 2010 USAID study identified black carbon as the second or third largest contributor to the current anthropogenic global warming, surpassed only by carbon dioxide and methane.[18]

 "Coal Plant pollution kills 30,000 people each year" EcoMall, accessed August 2010.
 "Key Issues & Mandates: Secure & Reliable Energy Supplies - Coal Becomes a 'Future Fuel'” NETL, accessed May 2010.
 "NAAQS" Sierra Club, accessed July 2010.
 Nel, A. "Air Pollution-Related Illness: Effects of Particles.: Science, 308(5723), 804-806. (2005, May 6).
 Schobert, H. H. Energy and Society. New York: Taylor & Francis, 241–255. (2002).
 Juliet Eilperin, "EPA tightens soot rules by 20 percent," Washington Post, Dec. 14, 2012.
 "EPA Seeks New Timetable for Reducing Pollution from Boilers and Incinerators/Agency committed to developing rules that are protective, cost effective and based on sound science" EPA, Dec. 7, 2010.
 Juliet Eilperin, "EPA tightens soot rules by 20 percent," Washington Post, Dec. 14, 2012.
 "IARC: Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths," IARC, Oct 17, 2013.
 Alan Lockwood, Kristen Welker-Hood, Molly Rauch, Barbara Gottlieb,"Coal's Assault on Human Health" Physicians for Social Responsibility Report, November 2009
 Clean Air Task Force,"Dirty Air, Dirty Power: Mortality and Health Damage Due to Air Pollution from Power Plants", June 2004
 Clean Air Task Force,"Dirty Air, Dirty Power: Mortality and Health Damage Due to Air Pollution from Power Plants", June 2004
 "Particle Pollution" American Lung Association, accessed August 2010.
 David Templeton and Don Hopey, "Other diseases show up at higher rates" Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Dec. 16, 2010.
 "The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from America's Dirtiest Energy Source," Clean Air Task Force, September 2010.
 "Technical Support Document for the Powerplant Impact Estimator Software Tool," Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force by Abt Associates, July 2010
 "Black Carbon Implicated in Global Warming" Science daily, July 30, 2010.
 Ramesh Prasad Bhushal, "Black carbon, a major culprit for climate change: Study" The Himalayan Times, May 2, 2010.
Related SourceWatch articles
Air pollution from coal-fired power plants
Campus coal plants
Clean Air Act
Clean Air Interstate Rule
Clean Air Watch
Clean Coal Technology
Clean Water Act
Clear Skies Initiative
climate change / global warming
Climate impacts of coal plants
Coal and jobs in the United States
Coal and transmission
Coal-fired power plant capacity and generation
Coal moratorium
Coal phase-out
Coal plant conversion projects
Coal plants near residential areas
Coal sludge
Coal Studies
Coal waste
Comparative electrical generation costs
Dispelling the myths of the acid rain story
Divestment and shareholder action on coal
Environmental impacts of coal
Environmental Protection Agency
EPA Coal Plant Settlements
Existing U.S. Coal Plants
External costs of coal
Fly ash
Health effects of coal
Heavy metals and coal
Mercury and coal
New Source Review
Oldest existing coal plants
Opposition to existing coal plants
Radioactivity and coal
Retrofit vs. Phase-Out of Coal-Fired Power Plants
Scrubber Retrofits at Existing Coal Plants
State coal subsidies
Sulfur dioxide and coal
Thermal pollution from coal plants
United States and coal
U.S. Coal Capacity by Year
Water consumption from coal plants

73 pages PM2.5 Study Report in Power Plant                         download      

4.1 Pre-combustion control
The first place where the formation of fine particulates can be controlled is in the selection of the coal and
preparation method.
4.1.1 Coal type selection
Fly ash resistivity plays a key role in the efficiency of PM2.5 capture processes.
Resistivity is dependent on the flue gas temperature and chemistry, and the chemical composition of the ash itself.
Low resistivity fly ash is produced from coals that contain higher sodium levels (Miller, 2015).
Also, high coal ash and sulphur contents are related to high values of PM2.5/PM10 ratios
(Lu and Ren, 2014; Yao and others, 2009).

Low sulphur coals contain higher amounts of ash, thus increasing the fly ash loading (Nicol, 2013). Hence,
appropriate screening of coal types could reduce the formation of fine PM in power plants.
The general method to determine the suitable coal type is a combustion test on a specific furnace.
Goto and others (2009a,b) describe a series of modified coal type selection methods, which take into account not only the
combustion test results, but also the combustion state in an actual coal-fired power plant.

4.1.2 Coal preparation
The particle size of coal affects PM emissions significantly.
Decreasing fineness leads to higher formation of fine PM, because of the direct transfer of more excluded minerals.
PM formed during combustion of pulverised coal with a particle size below 63 m show a bimodal size distribution,
including a fine mode at about 0.5 m resulting from fragmentation of inherent minerals and vaporisation of heavy metals.

Larger coal particles (125–250 m) resulted in a single-mode distribution at about 4 m (Ninomiya and others,
2004). The finer the pulverised coal, the finer the fly ash, and the large amount of fine particles are in the
emitted fly ash (Li and others, 2013)
. Moreover, combustion of finer coal tends to emit PM containing more
Control technologies
IEA Clean Coal Centre – Emission standards and control of PM2.5 fromcoal-fired power plant
55 volatile trace elements. Therefore, it is important to prepare the coal with appropriate fineness before
combustion (Lu and Ren, 2014)


Fine Particles (PM 2.5) Questions and Answers
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is a concern for people's health when levels in air are high. PM2.5 are tiny particles in the air that reduce visibility and cause the air to appear hazy when levels are elevated. Outdoor PM2.5 levels are most likely to be elevated on days with little or no wind or air mixing. The New York State Departments of Health (DOH) and Environmental Conservation (DEC) alert the public by issuing a PM2.5 Health Advisory when PM2.5 concentrations in outdoor air are expected to be unhealthy for sensitive groups.

What is Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5)?
The term fine particles, or particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), refers to tiny particles or droplets in the air that are two and one half microns or less in width. Like inches, meters and miles, a micron is a unit of measurement for distance.
There are about 25,000 microns in an inch. The widths of the larger particles in the PM2.5 size range would be about thirty times smaller than that of a human hair. The smaller particles are so small that several thousand of them could fit on the period at the end of this sentence.

How can PM2.5 affect my health?
Particles in the PM2.5 size range are able to travel deeply into the respiratory tract, reaching the lungs. Exposure to fine particles can cause short-term health effects such as eye, nose, throat and lung irritation, coughing, sneezing, runny nose and shortness of breath. Exposure to fine particles can also affect lung function and worsen medical conditions such as asthma and heart disease. Scientific studies have linked increases in daily PM2.5 exposure with increased respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions, emergency department visits and deaths. Studies also suggest that long term exposure to fine particulate matter may be associated with increased rates of chronic bronchitis, reduced lung function and increased mortality from lung cancer and heart disease. People with breathing and heart problems, children and the elderly may be particularly sensitive to PM2.5.

Where does PM2.5 come from?
There are outdoor and indoor sources of fine particles.
Outside, fine particles primarily come from car, truck, bus and off-road vehicle (e.g., construction equipment, snowmobile, locomotive) exhausts, other operations that involve the burning of fuels such as wood, heating oil or coal and natural sources such as forest and grass fires. Fine particles also form from the reaction of gases or droplets in the atmosphere from sources such as power plants. These chemical reactions can occur miles from the original source of the emissions. In New York State, some of the fine particles measured in the air are carried by wind from out-of-state sources. Because fine particles can be carried long distances from their source, events such as wildfires or volcanic eruptions can raise fine particle concentrations hundreds of miles from the event.

PM2.5 is also produced by common indoor activities. Some indoor sources of fine particles are tobacco smoke, cooking (e.g., frying, sautéing, and broiling), burning candles or oil lamps, and operating fireplaces and fuel-burning space heaters (e.g., kerosene heaters).

Is there an air quality standard for PM2.5 in outdoor air?
Yes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in 1997 and revised them in 2006 and 2012. National Ambient Air Standards are established to be protective of public health.
The short-term standard (24-hour or daily average) is 35 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3) and
the long-term standard (annual average) is 12 µg/m3.
A microgram is a unit of weight. There are a million micrograms in a gram, and a pound is equal to about 450 grams.

How will I know when PM2.5 levels are, or will be, elevated outside?
Outdoor air levels of fine particles increase during periods of stagnant air (very little wind and air mixing), when the particles are not carried away by wind, or when winds bring polluted air into the state from sources outside the state. In general, as the levels of PM2.5 in outdoor air increase, the air appears hazy and visibility is reduced. These conditions are similar in appearance to high humidity or fog. The New York State Department Environmental Conservation informs the public whenever fine particle concentrations in outdoor air are expected to be elevated. Every weekday morning the Department of Environmental Conservation will review weather conditions and data from their air monitoring stations to determine if, for that day or the following day, fine particle levels are expected to exceed levels considered unhealthy for sensitive groups. If it is likely that this level will be exceeded, the agency will contact the media so that a Particulate Matter Health Advisory can be carried on afternoon and evening broadcasts. The Department of Environmental Conservation also provides PM2.5 monitoring data and PM2.5 forecasts on its web site.

Are there ways to reduce my exposure to PM2.5?
When outdoor levels of PM2.5 are elevated, going indoors may reduce your exposure, although some outdoor particles will come indoors. If there are significant indoor sources of PM2.5, levels inside may not be lower than outside. Some ways to reduce exposure are to limit indoor and outdoor activities that produce fine particles (for example, burning candles indoors or open burning outdoors) and avoid strenuous activity in areas where fine particle levels are high.

Who can I contact if I have more questions?
If you would like additional information about the health effects of fine particles, you can call the NYS Department of Health at 518-402-7800 or 800-458-1158. To find out if an advisory has been issued or to learn more about air quality, you can call the Department of Environmental Conservation's toll-free air quality hotline: 1-800-535-1345 or visit their Air Quality Index (AQI) website where you can also view state PM2.5 maps and real-time monitoring data for PM2.5.

Questions or comments:       Revised: February 2018

 Air Quality Index (AQI) Basics

Air Quality Index (AQI) Basics

Air Quality Index - A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

Air Quality Guide for Ozone

Air Quality Guide for Particle Pollution

Other AirNow Publications

Other AirNow Publications

AQI Calculator

The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. For each of these pollutants, EPA has established national air quality standards to protect public health .Ground-level ozone and airborne particles are the two pollutants that pose the greatest threat to human health in this country.

How Does the AQI Work?
Think of the AQI as a yardstick that runs from 0 to 500. The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, an AQI value of 50 represents good air quality with little potential to affect public health, while an AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality.

An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the national air quality standard for the pollutant, which is the level EPA has set to protect public health. AQI values below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is considered to be unhealthy-at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values get higher.

Understanding the AQI
The purpose of the AQI is to help you understand what local air quality means to your health. To make it easier to understand, the AQI is divided into six categories:

Air Quality Index
(AQI) Values    Levels of Health Concern    Colors
When the AQI is in this range:    ..air quality conditions are: symbolized by this color:
0 to 50    Good    Green
51 to 100    Moderate    Yellow
101 to 150    Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups    Orange
151 to 200    Unhealthy    Red
201 to 300    Very Unhealthy    Purple
301 to 500    Hazardous    Maroon

Note: Values above 500 are considered Beyond the AQI. Follow recommendations for the Hazardous category. Additional information on reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here.

Each category corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of health concern and what they mean are:

  "Good" AQI is 0 to 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk.

  "Moderate" AQI is 51 to 100. Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people. For example, people who are unusually sensitive to ozone may experience respiratory symptoms.

"Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups" AQI is 101 to 150. Although general public is not likely to be affected at this AQI range, people with lung disease, older adults and children are at a greater risk from exposure to ozone, whereas persons with heart and lung disease, older adults and children are at greater risk from the presence of particles in the air.

"Unhealthy" AQI is 151 to 200. Everyone may begin to experience some adverse health effects, and members of the sensitive groups may experience more serious effects.

"Very Unhealthy" AQI is 201 to 300. This would trigger a health alert signifying that everyone may experience more serious health effects.

"Hazardous" AQI greater than 300. This would trigger a health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.

AQI colors
EPA has assigned a specific color to each AQI category to make it easier for people to understand quickly whether air pollution is reaching unhealthy levels in their communities. For example, the color orange means that conditions are "unhealthy for sensitive groups," while red means that conditions may be "unhealthy for everyone," and so on.

Air Quality Index Levels of Health Concern    Numerical
Value    Meaning
Good    0 to 50    Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk.
Moderate    51 to 100    Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups    101 to 150    Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected.
Unhealthy    151 to 200    Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects.
Very Unhealthy    201 to 300    Health alert: everyone may experience more serious health effects.
Hazardous    301 to 500    Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.

Note: Values above 500 are considered Beyond the AQI. Follow recommendations for the "Hazardous category." Additional information on reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here.

This page was last updated on Wednesday, August 31, 2016

 Particle Pollution (PM)

Particle Pollution (PM)
Particle pollution, also called particulate matter or PM, is a mixture of solids and liquid droplets floating in the air. Some particles are released directly from a specific source, while others form in complicated chemical reactions in the atmosphere.

Particles come in a wide range of sizes. Particles less than or equal to 10 micrometers in diameter are so small that they can get into the lungs, potentially causing serious health problems. Ten micrometers is less than the width of a single human hair.

PM graphic showing size compared to hair and grain of sand   

Coarse dust particles (PM10) are 2.5 to 10 micrometers in diameter. Sources include crushing or grinding operations and dust stirred up by vehicles on roads.

Fine particles (PM2.5) are 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller, and can only be seen with an electron microscope. Fine particles are produced from all types of combustion, including motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, and some industrial processes


People with heart or lung diseases, older adults and children are most likely to be affected by particle pollution exposure. However, even if you are healthy, you may feel temporary symptoms if you are exposed to high levels of particle pollution. Numerous scientific studies connect particle pollution exposure to a variety of health issues, including:

irritation of the eyes, nose and throat
coughing, chest tightness and shortness of breath
reduced lung function
irregular heartbeat
asthma attacks
heart attacks
premature death in people with heart or lung disease

Particle pollution and your health
How smoke from fires can affect your health
Use the air quality guide to help reduce your exposure and protect your health.

heart health graphic


PM haze in a national park

Particle pollution can:
Reduce visibility (haze) in parts of the US, including some national parks
Stain and damage buildings and statues
Increase acidity in water bodies or change the flow of nutrients
Deplete the soil and damage forests and crops

For more information on PM -
EPA: Particulate Matter
EPA Burn Wise Program
Trends in national particulate matter levels

This page was last updated on Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Air Quality Guide for Ozone
Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce your exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit

View or print guide in PDF (2 pp., 67KB, about PDF) Updated August 2015

Air Quality Index (0-500)    Who Needs to be Concerned?    What Should I Do?
It’s a great day to be active outside.

Some people who may be unusually sensitive to ozone.    Unusually sensitive people: Consider reducing prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. Watch for symptoms such as coughing or shortness of breath. These are signs to take it a little easier.

Everyone else: It’s a good day to be active outside.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
(101-150)    Sensitive groups include people with lung disease such as asthma, older adults, children and teenagers, and people who are active outdoors.    Sensitive groups: Reduce prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. Take more breaks, do less intense activities. Watch for symptoms such as coughing or shortness of breath. Schedule outdoor activities in the morning when ozone is lower.

People with asthma should follow their asthma action plans and keep quick relief medicine handy.
(151 to 200)    Everyone   
Sensitive groups: Avoid prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. Schedule outdoor activities in the morning when ozone is lower. Consider moving activities indoors.

People with asthma, keep quick-relief medicine handy.

Everyone else: Reduce prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. Take more breaks, do less intense activities. Schedule outdoor activities in the morning when ozone is lower.

Very Unhealthy
(201-300)    Everyone   
Sensitive groups: Avoid all physical activity outdoors. Move activities indoors or reschedule to a time when air quality is better.

People with asthma, keep quick-relief medicine handy.

Everyone else: Avoid prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. Schedule outdoor activities in the morning when ozone is lower. Consider moving activities indoors.

(301-500)    Everyone    Everyone: Avoid all physical activity outdoors.

Note: If you don't have an air conditioner, staying inside with the windows closed may be dangerous in extremely hot weather. In these cases, seek alternative shelter.

Key Facts to Know About Ozone:
Ozone in the air we breathe can cause serious health problems, including breathing difficulty, asthma attacks, lung damage, and early death.

Ozone forms in the sun, usually on hot summer days. Ozone is worse in the afternoon and early evening, so plan outdoor activities for the morning.

You can reduce your exposure to ozone and still get exercise! Use the Air Quality Index (AQI) at to plan your activity.
What is ozone?
Ozone is a colorless gas that can be good or bad, depending on where it is. Ozone in the stratosphere is good because it shields the earth from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Ozone at ground level, where we breathe, is bad because it can harm human health.

Ozone forms when two types of pollutants (VOCs and NOx) react in sunlight. These pollutants come from sources such as vehicles, industries, power plants, and products such as solvents and paints.

Why is ozone a problem?
Ozone can cause a number of health problems, including coughing, breathing difficulty, and lung damage. Exposure to ozone can make the lungs more susceptible to infection, aggravate lung diseases, increase the frequency of asthma attacks, and increase the risk of early death from heart or lung disease.

Do I need to be concerned?
Even healthy adults can experience ozone’s harmful effects, but some people may be at greater risk. They include:

People with lung disease such as asthma
Children, including teenagers, because their lungs are still developing and they breathe more air per pound of body weight than adults
Older adults
People who are active outdoors, including outdoor workers

How can I protect myself?
Use the Air Quality Index (AQI) to plan outdoor activities. To keep the AQI handy, sign up for EnviroFlash emails, get the free AirNow app, or install the free widget on your website. Find all of these tools at

Stay healthy: exercise, eat a balanced diet, and keep asthma under control with your asthma action plan.

When you see that the AQI is unhealthy, take simple steps to reduce your exposure:

Choose a less-strenuous activity
Take more breaks during outdoor activity
Reschedule activities to the morning or to another day
Move your activity inside where ozone levels are usually lower

Can I help reduce ozone?
Yes! Here are a few tips.

Turn off lights you are not using
Drive less: carpool, use public transportation, bike or walk
Keep your engine tuned, and don’t let your engine idle
When refueling: stop when the pump shuts off, avoid spilling fuel, and tighten your gas cap
Inflate tires to the recommended pressure
Use low-VOC paint and cleaning products, and seal and store them so they can’t evaporate
Watch for Air Quality Action Days in your area

Air Quality Guide

Air Quality Guide for Particle Pollution
Harmful particle pollution is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce your exposure and protect your health. For your local air quality forecast, visit

View or print guide in PDF (2 pp., 68KB, about PDF)

Air Quality Index    Who Needs to be Concerned?    What Should I Do?
0-50    It’s a great day to be active outside.
51-100    Some people who may be unusually sensitive to particle pollution.    Unusually sensitive people: Consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion. Watch for symptoms such as coughing or shortness of breath. These are signs to take it easier.

Everyone else: It’s a good day to be active outside.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
101-150    Sensitive groups include people with heart or lung disease, older adults, children and teenagers.    Sensitive groups: Reduce prolonged or heavy exertion. It’s OK to be active outside, but take more breaks and do less intense activities. Watch for symptoms such as coughing or shortness of breath.

People with asthma should follow their asthma action plans and keep quick relief medicine handy.

If you have heart disease: Symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, or unusual fatigue may indicate a serious problem. If you have any of these, contact your heath care provider.
151 to 200    Everyone    Sensitive groups: Avoid prolonged or heavy exertion. Move activities indoors or reschedule to a time when the air quality is better.

Everyone else: Reduce prolonged or heavy exertion. Take more breaks during all outdoor activities.
Very Unhealthy
201-300    Everyone    Sensitive groups: Avoid all physical activity outdoors. Move activities indoors or reschedule to a time when air quality is better.

Everyone else: Avoid prolonged or heavy exertion. Consider moving activities indoors or rescheduling to a time when air quality is better.
301-500    Everyone    Everyone: Avoid all physical activity outdoors.

Sensitive groups: Remain indoors and keep activity levels low. Follow tips for keeping particle levels low indoors.
Note: Values above 500 are considered Beyond the AQI. Follow recommendations for the Hazardous category. Additional information on reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here.

  Key Facts to Know About Particle Pollution:
Particle pollution can cause serious health problems – including asthma attacks, heart attacks, strokes and early death.

Particle pollution can be a problem at any time of the year, depending on where you live.

You can reduce your exposure to pollution and still get exercise! Use daily Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts at to plan your activity.

What is particle pollution?
Particle pollution comes from many different types of sources. Fine particles (2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller) include power plants, industrial processes, vehicle tailpipes, woodstoves, and wildfires. Coarse particles (between 2.5 and 10 micrometers) come from crushing and grinding operations, road dust, and some agricultural operations.

Why is particle pollution a problem?
Particle pollution is linked to a number of health problems, including coughing, wheezing, reduced lung function, asthma attacks, heart attacks and strokes. It also is linked to early death.

Do I need to be concerned?
While it’s always smart to pay attention to air quality where you live, some people may be at greater risk from particle pollution. They include:

People with cardiovascular disease (diseases of the heart and blood vessels)

People with lung disease, including asthma and COPD

Children and teenagers

Older adults

Research indicates that obesity or diabetes may increase risk.

New or expectant mothers may also want to take precautions to protect the health of their babies.

How can I protect myself?
Use AQI forecasts to plan outdoor activities. On days when the AQI forecast is unhealthy, take simple steps to reduce your exposure:

Choose a less-strenuous activity

Shorten your outdoor activities

Reschedule activities

Spend less time near busy roads

When particle levels are high outdoors, they can be high indoors – unless the building has a good filtration system.

Keep particles lower indoors:

Eliminate tobacco smoke

Reduce your use of wood stoves and fireplaces

Use HEPA air filters and air cleaners designed to reduce particles

Don’t burn candles

Can I help reduce particle pollution?
Yes! Here are a few tips.

Drive less: carpool, use public transportation, bike or walk

Choose ENERGY STAR appliances

Set thermostats higher in summer and lower in winter

Don’t burn leaves, garbage, plastic or rubber

Keep car, boat and other engines tuned

aqi_logo    aqi-logo-horiz_smalll
Office of Air and Radiation (6301A)
August, 2015

This page was last updated on Tuesday, January 26, 2016臺灣空氣污染      



高雄的空氣品質一直都是全台灣最差的 (圖為左營區)

根據環保署統計,自2016年十二月實施空氣品質新指標以來到2017月2月20日期間,南部地區空氣品質達到「不良橘」以上的天數,八十天中有七十六天,另有四天是普通,沒有任何一天是良好,不健康天數達九成五[4] ;中部地區八十天中,也有卅七天達到不健康的「不良橘」,空汙天數達到百分之四十六;北部地區八十天中有十二天「不良橘」以上天數。[4]

1    空氣汙染指標
1.1    細懸浮微粒 PM2.5
2    區域空氣品質
2.1    北部
2.2    離島、東部
2.3    中部
2.3.1    改善措施
2.4    南部
2.4.1    雲林、嘉義、台南    改善措施
2.4.2    高雄市    重工業    高雄港    改善措施    產業轉型
2.4.3    屏東
2.5    南電北送
2.5.1    區域發電量與用電量
2.6    南北差距
2.6.1    肺癌發生率
2.6.2    膀胱癌發生率
3    空氣汙染成分
3.1    懸浮微粒
3.1.1    細懸浮微粒PM2.5
3.1.2    懸浮微粒PM10
3.2    臭氧O3
3.3    酸雨
3.4    能見度
4    台灣空氣汙染的地理因素
4.1    地形
4.2    季節與風向
4.3    高度
4.4    地理位置:境外污染
5    社會與文化
5.1    深澳發電廠
6    解決台灣的空氣汙染
7    參見
8    參考文獻
9    外部連結
細懸浮微粒 PM2.5
台灣的標準為15 µg/m3;美國則自2013年起將標準上修為12 µg/m3; [7]世界衛生組織的標準則為小於10 µg/m3[8]。

《蘋果日報》統計2016年全台「一般空氣品質監測站」數據,即設置於人口密集、可能發生高污染或能反映較大區域空氣品質之測站。 台灣西半部AQI大於100日數,以北部、桃竹苗較佳,介於23~64日;中部地區次之,介於69~84日;南投、雲嘉南則有97~120日,高屏地區則有100~160日,其中最差3區分別為左營、潮州及大寮,都在142日以上。[9][10][11]


縣市    比例
1. 高雄市 (包含屏東市、潮州鎮)    34.5%
2. 嘉義市    34.2%
–  南部地區    31.7%
3. 雲林縣    31.6%
– 嘉義縣市    30.7%
4. 台南市    30.3%
5. 南投縣    29.5%
6. 嘉義縣    27.2%
7. 屏東縣(包含恆春半島)    26.0%
8. 台中市    21.7%
–  中部地區    21.4%
9. 彰化縣    20.1%
10. 苗栗縣    14.6%
11. 新竹縣    13.3%
北部地區的空氣汙染源,主要來自都會區龐大的汽機車廢氣及飄散自中台灣的火力發電廠的細懸浮微粒 (PM2.5)。


参见:第六套輕油裂解廠 § 《六輕延年益壽論》







中央研究院的研究發現,廟宇在民俗季節焚燒紙錢期間,其周邊的PM10濃度會上升到平常的5-6倍;PM2.5濃度平均飆升15µg/m3。 (參閱 線香)[16]
参见:高雄市立潮寮國民中學 § 潮寮國中小環保議題
而雲嘉南以及高屏地區AQI>100的天數皆超過百天以上,幾近於全年的3分之1。[9]硫氧化物及氮氧化物的污染會造成酸雨,南部及北部地區的酸雨是最嚴重的[21]。 詩人余光中曾寫下《控訴一枝煙囪》來形容遭受嚴重污染的高雄空氣。[22]






  重工業 (50%)
  汽機車廢氣 (25%)
  大氣飄散汙染 (25%)



根據統計,2016全台灣空氣品質最差的地區以高雄市左營區156天不良居冠。[9] 即便位於後勁的五輕關閉,左營區等北高雄的空氣品質仍是全台灣最糟的地方。[36]台灣空氣污染最嚴重的地方即為高屏地區[37]。2015年根據康健雜誌報導,全台PM2.5污染前三名,全部都在高雄。

在國民政府遷臺後選擇在距離中華民國總統府所在地首都台北市300多公里遠的高雄發展重工業,於是高雄聚集了國營的鋼鐵、石化工業龍頭,連帶吸引相關廠商進駐,使得全台灣空氣汙染排放比較大的列管工廠,總共有7100家,高雄就佔了3千家 (全台87%鋼鐵業集中在高雄)[33]。








参见:大林電廠更新改建計畫 § 南電北送






徐永明說,空氣品質的南北差距越來越明顯,北部的空氣品質在改善的同時,南部卻逐漸惡化。他直言:「環保署、立法院要不要乾脆搬到南部去,讓官員真的動起來,正視這個問題。」[54][59] 劉建國說,環境保護的資源主要應該投資在台灣中南部,「環保署未來改組,變成環境資源部後,總部應設在台灣中南部,『否則新政府要對選民如何交代』」。[54][60][61]





粒徑小於2.5微米的污染顆粒,直徑約為人類頭髮絲粗細的1/28,單位以微克/立方公尺表示之,PM2.5可以在空氣中懸浮或隨著氣流四處漂浮,也易吸附著有毒物質如二氧化硫。一般PM10在幾個小時之內,多會因地心引力而落地,但PM2.5卻會長時間在空氣中懸浮,直到隨風擴散或是附著雨水而沉澱於地面。[63] PM2.5的形成可分為「原生性」和「衍生性」,無論是「原生性」還是「衍生性」皆可能由大自然或人工產生。 原生性PM2.5指的是第一時間被排放到大氣時即為PM2.5的粒狀物,在大氣環境中沒有經過化學反應這個過程;衍生性PM2.5則是最初被釋出的化學物質儘管並非PM2.5,但在大氣環境中經過連鎖的化學變化與光化反應後形成PM2.5,強烈的陽光照射是促成衍生性PM2.5生成的重要因素。衍生性PM2.5常附著硫酸鹽、硝酸鹽、有機碳及重金屬等有毒物質,毒性遠比原生性PM2.5強。[64] 由於PM2.5較PM10更容易深入人體肺部及血管系統,對健康影響更大,若細微粒又附著其他污染物,將更加深呼吸系統之危害。細懸浮微粒已被世界衛生組織(WHO)列為主要致癌物[65],由於粒徑極小且易附著更多有害化學物質,已有越來越多疾病被研究證實與PM2.5相關,不僅限於肺部與心血管疾病,例如肝癌以及飛蚊症等等。[66][67]台灣本島細懸浮微粒污染最嚴重的空品區依序為:高屏空品區、雲嘉南空品區、中部空品區。[68][69]苗栗以北縣市與宜蘭的污染情況為其次,花東空品區則為全國最優良,是全國唯一PM2.5年均值低於10微克/立方公尺的區域。[70]

臺灣PM2.5平均 來源 [34][71]
來源    占比 (%)
石化業 (重工業)   
鋼鐵業 (重工業)   
露天燃燒 (包含:鞭炮、紙錢等)   
顆粒直徑在10微米以下但大於2.5微米之粒子,又被稱為「浮游塵」。PM10主要出處包括道路揚塵、河川揚塵、汽機車排放廢氣、露天燃燒、營建施工、工地及農地耕作等,或由原生性空氣污染物轉化成之二次污染物,這類的二次汙染物雖然顆粒直徑大於2.5微米,但亦能深入人體肺部深處,如該粒子附著其他污染物,將加深對呼吸系統之傷害[72]。台灣本島懸浮微粒污染嚴重的空品區為雲嘉南空品區以及高屏空品區,秋冬季節的大安溪、濁水溪、卑南溪與高屏溪受到乾燥的天氣和盛行的東北季風影響,河川揚塵頻繁,並隨著季風逸散至雲林以南的下風縣市,加上區域內重工業密集,導致雲林以南縣市的PM10濃度明顯偏高。[73] 2017年全台灣PM10濃度最高的前三區分別為高雄市楠梓區和鳳山區、及雲林縣麥寮[58]。

臺灣PM2.5平均 來源 [74]

  汽機車 (36%)
  境外移入 (27%)
  工業(燃煤發電、石化、煉鋼) (25%)
  其他 (12%)









2018年10月底由於 東北季风增強,空氣污染指標為紅色。[94]


深澳發電廠是位於臺灣新北市瑞芳區深澳的火力發電廠,由台灣電力公司經營,1960年投產,2007年因機組老舊預備改建而除役。原有3部燃煤發電機組,完工時為台灣最大的發電廠(依發電容量),同時也是台灣首座大型發電廠,主要供應台灣北部電力需求[97]。2007年除役後開始改建計畫,改建後的發電機組原計2019年投產,但因改建計畫包括在鄰近的深澳岬角興建卸煤專用碼頭,被認為將影響當地生態,加上電廠重啟後可能連帶造成周邊空氣品質惡化,目前改建工程尚未動工。 [53]

更多信息:新北市政府 § 環境保育

行政院已於2017年12月14日通過「空氣污染防制法」(簡稱空污法)修正案並送請立法院審議中。[102] 2018年初,蔡英文政府決議讓第二核能發電廠恢復持續運轉[20],時任的最大反對黨主席朱立倫雖表示理解,但仍批評此舉是執政黨及蔡政府能源政策轉彎。[104]2018年6月25日,空污法修正案三讀通過,規範了空氣品質維護區的劃設,固定和移動污染源之管制措施,以及空污總量管制等。[105]

   高屏空污減量2期計畫 7月上路    

 2018年04月07日 04:09 工商時報 邱琮皓/台北報導






2018-05-21 23:59









高屏空污怨聲載道 管制政策亟待正義

 2018 年 05 月 18 日  您在這裡首頁 » 環境污染 » 空氣污染




附表 高屏空污總量管制污染物之許可排放量與認可量

2015年6月30日公告的「高屏空污總量管制計畫」第一、第二期程都是三年,由於子法《既存固定污染源污染物排放量認可準則》的限制,高屏受管制的固定污染源第一期程只需減少認可量(註[1]及附表)的5%,真正實質減量的工廠並不多。簡言之,第一期程主要工作是建立高屏固定污染源空氣污染物的排放基線,並藉此限制新廠的進入,但真正可以發揮減量功力的要等第二期程。 盼啊盼,盼了快三年,終於可以攤開第二期程計畫了,環保署打算把607家工廠分三批管制,但管制時間卻從原本的三年變成六年半。第一批列管的為空污排放量較大(註[2])的136家工廠共691個製程,需在2022年12月31日削減污染排放,削減量約為第二期程指定削減量累積占比的80%,你我熟知的中油、中鋼、台電、台塑等高屏大污染源都在其列。

















[1] 依照《既存固定污染源污染物排放量認可準則》,總量管制第一期程列管的固定污染源排放硫氧化物、氮氧化物、揮發性有機物及粒狀污染物的認可量,是取申請日前七年內完整操作年度之最大年排放量來計算。第二期程將隨準則修正而下修。

[2] 總量管制第二期程第一批列管的為空污排放量較大的工廠,指的是2015年到2017年三年實際排放量的平均值為:硫氧化物≥220公噸,或氮氧化物≥420公噸,或揮發性有機物≥30公噸,或粒狀污染物≥20公噸的固定污染源。

[3] 2017年7月17日「我要乾淨空氣!高屏大污染源,應大幅減量!我們對總量管制的期待」記者會訴求三:拉大抵換差距。

(本文為2018/05/17 Yahoo論壇投書:高屏空污怨聲載道 管制政策亟待正義 (link is external))