|U.S. Senator for Florida, Marco Rubio
to China 8-15-2018, 4 vessels $30M, 25% incr. unit
price around $120/mt. Wasted money by extra Duty: 30M
x 25% x 4 = $30M
|1. USA: Who is the Exporter, Provider (Miner),
Ship Company (chart), Ship name, Size of Ship, Port, price, History,
2. Cn: Buyer, Application, Spec, Price
3. Tw: Taiwan Power, Port Capacity
| Types of coal
Lignite is the lowest rank of coal and has the lowest energy content. Lignite is crumbly and has high moisture content.
Lignite accounted for about 9% of U.S. coal production in 2017.
Subbituminous coal has a higher heating value than lignite. Subbituminous coal typically contains 35%–45% carbon, compared to 25%–35% for lignite. About 45% of the coal produced in the United States in 2017 was subbituminous.
Bituminous coal contains 45%–86% carbon and has two to three times the heating value of lignite. Bituminous coal was formed under high heat and pressure. Bituminous is the most abundant rank of coal found in the United States. Bituminous coal accounted for about 46% of U.S. coal production in 2017.
Anthracite contains 86%–97% carbon and has a heating value that is slightly higher on average than bituminous coal. Anthracite is the least abundant rank of coal in the United States, and it accounts for less than 1% of annual U.S. coal production.
We exclusively trade thermal coal of Indonesian origin and offer three main calorific values – GAR 4200 kcal/kg, NAR 4700 kcal/kg and NAR 5500 kcal/kg. The table below indicates the typical specifications of each category of coal under the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard.
Specification in ASTM Standard Low Calorific Value Medium Calorific Value High Calorific Value
Gross Calorific Value GAR 4,200 Kcal/kg 5,000 Kcal/kg 5,800 Kcal/kg
Net Calorific Value NAR 3,800 Kcal/kg 4,700 Kcal/kg 5,500 Kcal/kg
Total Moisture ARB 36% 26% 14%
Inherent Moisture ADB Approximately 24% 18% 9%
Ash Content ADB 8% 5% 15%
Volatile Matter ADB Approximately 40% 40% 41%
Ash Fusion Temperature T1 1,150 Degree Celsius 1,150 Degree Celsius 1,300 Degree Celsius
Total Sulfur ADB 0.8% 0.9% 0.6%
HGI - Minimum 45% 40% 40%
Size 0-50mm - Approximately 90% 90% 90%Please click here for glossary of coal terms.
Our coal trading business commenced in October 2012, spearheaded by a team of experienced personnel owning strong local expertise and well-developed relationships across the coal value chain from the ground up to the end-buyer.
We source our thermal coal directly from a selected number of Indonesia’s largest and most well-established coal producers. We serve coal users in Asia operating across various industries, with a primary focus on China, which is the world’s largest importer of thermal coal. Our excellent reliability and service quality has enabled us to establish a strong customer base.
We operate mainly on FOB basis and our current monthly trading volume is approximately 200,000-300,000 metric tonnes.
ADB - Air-Dried Basis. In coal sample analysis, ADB neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures.
ARB - As-Received Basis. In coal sample analysis, ARB puts all variables into consideration and uses the total weight as the basis of measurement. ARB is the most widely used basis in industrial applications.
Ash content - Ash content is the non-combustible residue that remains after coal is burnt. Ash reduces handling and burning capacity, affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency and therefore increases handling costs.
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
GAR - Gross As Received. Thermal coal is quoted on a GAR basis, except for Europe/ARA, Richards Bay 6,000 kcal/kg, and Japan and Korea West CIF, which are quoted on a NAR (Net As Received) basis.
Fixed carbon - Fixed carbon is the solid combustible residue that remains in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off, comprised mostly of carbon but also containing some hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.
HGI - The relative ease with which coal can be pulverised depends on the strength of the coal and is measured by the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). This empirical test indicates how difficult it would be to grind a specific coal to the particle size necessary for effective combustion in a pulverized coal fired boiler
Inherent moisture - Inherent moisture (or bed moisture) means moisture that exists as an integral part of the coal seam in its natural state, including water in pores, but excluding that present in macroscopically visible fractures.
Sulphur - Sulphur content in coal presents problems with utilization and resultant pollution, as it causes corrosion and fouling of boiler tubes, and atmospheric pollution when released in flue gases.
Total moisture - Total moisture in coal is represented by measuring weight loss from aggressive drying in an air atmosphere under rigidly controlled conditions of temperature, time and air flow. The presence of moisture is an important factor in both the storage and the utilization of coal, as it adds unnecessary weight during transportation, reduces the calorific value, and poses some handling problems.
Volatile matter - Volatile matter is the material that is driven off when coal is heated to 950 °C in the absence of air under specified conditions. It consists of a mixture of gases, low-boiling-point organic compounds that condense into oils upon cooling, and tars. In general, coals with high volatile-matter content ignite easily and are highly reactive in combustion applications.
(Smokeless Coal) Purpose for this Webpage....
so far for Knowledge/Study only... Destination.... Taiwan Power Plants.
|Please give me some summay abou the your
Peru Smokeless Coal.
My focus is the application for Power Plant.
I need do some study...
1. Can replace in existing power plant.. Completed replace or mix up with current Coal use...
in Pollution result , heating efficiency , cost comparision (vs regular Coal) & result.
Need any additional Equip... .. any exising power plant use...
My destination.... Taiwan
|Anthracite is the best type of coal,
being mostly carbon. Lignite (brown coal, partially fossilized) and bituminous coal generate much SO2 and smog.
Generally today one would use a scrubber on the exhaust to prevent smog and even CO2 capture.
There are mainly three classifications of coal: Anthracite, Bituminous and Lignite.
Lignite has the lowest grade of coal whereas anthracite is the highest one.
Power plants generally use steam coal which is a grade between anthracite and bituminous.
Coal is first milled to a fine powder, which increases the surface area and allows it to burn more quickly.
In these pulverized coal combustion systems, the powdered coal is blown into the combustion chamber of a boiler where it is burnt at high temperature.
2 years ago
Yehia F. Khalil
Anthracite is the highest-rank coal in terms of the carbon content and the heating value. The next to anthracite is bituminous coal and finally the lowest rank coal is lignite.
If anthracite is available and at a competitive cost, then burning this highest-rank coal in power plants would be a good option.
However and to my knowledge this type of coal is more costly than bituminous and lignite.
I cover this topic in my air pollution course at Yale University.
Khalil, Y.F. (Fall 2016). Air Pollution Control (APC). Lecture notes, School of Engineering & Applied Science (SEAS), Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil
Based on coal Gross Calorific Value (GCV), your answer is yes. But depending on some other factors such as excavation and processing costs and coal impurities/enrichments it may or may not to be economic to burn Anthracite for thermal power generation.
Please consider coal enrichment of Germanium and/or Gallium. It may lead you to an alternative use of the produced coal and make it economic to burn the Anthracite and gain trace elements from its ash.
Feel free to ask if you are interested in the topic.
Here I've put some charts/diagrams/links.
|25.05.2017 12:45:54 A A A
Ukraine will stop using anthracite coal from 2019, Ukrainska Pravda website has reported, citing energy minister Ihor Nasalyk.
Addressing the cabinet meeting yesterday, Nasalyk said anthracite would be replaced with G-grade coal extracted from Ukrainian mines.
He said anthracite consumption would be cut to 7mn tons this year from 10.6mn tons last year.
Nasalyk also confessed that all the state-owned coal mines without exception are currently loss-making, but he said the government’s goal is to make them profitable.
Ukraine has been short of anthracite since last winter because almost all the anthracite mines are located in the rebel-held areas in the Donbass. Anthracite deliveries from there to mainland Ukraine were initially blocked by nationalists, and in March President Petro Poroshenko stopped all trade with the rebel-held areas by his decree. Simultaneously, the government and the biggest private energy company, DTEK, announced plans to convert power plants to use G-grade goal instead of anthracite, and to boost coal imports.
In April, five out of the six thermal power plants burning anthracite were stopped.
Samcheok Anthracite power station
This article is part of the Coal Issues portal on SourceWatch, a project of CoalSwarm and the Center for Media and Democracy. See here for help on adding material to CoalSwarm.
This article is part of the CoalSwarm coverage of South Korea and coal
South Korea and coal
Power companies and agencies
Proposed coal plants in South Korea
Existing coal plants in South Korea
Global use and production of coal
International Information on Coal
Samcheok Anthracite power station is a proposed 100 megawatt (MW) anthracite coal-fired power station planned for Samcheok, South Korea.
2 Background on Plant
3 Project Details
4 Articles and resources
4.2 Related SourceWatch articles
4.3 External resources
The undated satellite photo below shows the proposed location for the plant, in Samcheok, South Korea
Use ctrl + scroll to zoom the map
Background on Plant
The 100 MW anthracite coal-fired plant was originally proposed as part of the second phase of the Samcheok Green Power Plant.
However, as of 2014 plans for the Samcheok Green power station consist of four 550 MW coal units.
Sponsor: Korea Electric Power Corporation
Location: Samcheok, South Korea
Coordinates: 37.45, 129.165 (approximate)
Gross Capacity: 100 MW
Projected in service:
Coal Type: anthracite
Source of financing:
Articles and resources
"Power Generation Complex to Be Established in Samcheok," Invest Korea, Dec 24, 2008.
"The Latest CFB Technology Developments for Flexible Large Scale Utility Power Production," Foster Wheeler paper presented at PowerGen Europe, June 3-5, 2014
"Samcheok Green Power Project: A New Era in Clean Coal Technology," Foster Wheeler, accessed Jan 2014.
Related SourceWatch articles
South Korea and coal
| Hoping Power Plant
Hsinta Power Plant Linkou Power Plant Mailiao Power Plant Taichung Power Plant Talin Power Plant
|Hoping Power Plant
Hoping Power Plant is located in TaiwanHoping Power Plant
Location of Hoping Power Plant
Official name 和平電廠
Country Republic of China
Location Xiulin, Hualien County, Taiwan
Coordinates 24°18′24″N 121°45′50″ECoordinates: 24°18′24″N 121°45′50″E
Commission date June 2002 (Unit 1)
September 2002 (Unit 2)
Owner(s) Ho-Ping Power Company
Thermal power station
Primary fuel Coal
Nameplate capacity 2 X 660 MW
The Hoping Power Plant (Chinese: 和平電廠; pinyin: Hépíng Diànchǎng) is a coal-fired power plant in Xiulin Township, Hualien County, Taiwan. With the installed capacity of 1,320 MW, the power plant is the fourth largest coal-fired power plant in Taiwan.
|The Hsinta Power Plant or Hsing-ta Power Plant
(Chinese: 興達發電廠; pinyin: Xìngdá Fādiànchǎng) is a coal-fired
power plant in Yong'an District and Qieding District in Kaohsiung,
Taiwan. With a total installed capacity of 4,326 MW, the plant is Taiwan's second largest coal-fired power plant after the 5,500 MW Taichung Power Plant (coal-generated power only).
|Linkou Power Plant
Linkou Power Plant.jpg
Linkou Power Plant is located in TaiwanLinkou Power Plant
Location of Linkou Power Plant
Official name 林口發電廠
Country Republic of China
Location Linkou, New Taipei, Taiwan
Coordinates 25°07′15″N 121°17′54″ECoordinates: 25°07′15″N 121°17′54″E
Construction began August 1965
Commission date 18 July 1968 (old Unit 1)
17 March 1972 (old Unit 2)
6 October 2016 (Unit 1)
24 March 2017 (Unit 2)
Decommission date 1 September 2014 (old Unit 1-2)
Thermal power station
Primary fuel Coal
Nameplate capacity 2 X 800 MW
The Linkou Power Plant (Chinese: 林口發電廠; pinyin: Línkǒu Fādiànchǎng) is a coal-fired power plant in Linkou District, New Taipei, Taiwan. With the previous total installed capacity of 600 MW, the power plant used to be the smallest coal-fired power plant in Taiwan. The power plant is currently undergoing retrofitting to increase its installed generation capacity to 2.4 GW
|The Mailiao Power Plant (Chinese: 麥寮電廠; pinyin:
Màiliáo Diànchǎng) is a coal-fired power plant in Mailiao
Township, Yunlin County, Taiwan. With a total installed capacity of 4,200
MW, the plant is Taiwan's third largest coal-fired power plant
after Taichung Power Plant and Hsinta Power Plant
|antracite cole size 0-30 mm. 90%
sulphur max 1.2%
prize 60-80 us$/tons
Commodity: STEAM COAL 5500 KcAL/Kg Reject 5300 KcAL/Kg (CRUSHED)
STEAM COAL 5800 KcAL/Kg Reject 5500 KcAL/Kg (CRUSHED)
STEAM COAL 6000 KcAL/Kg Reject 5800 KcAL/Kg (CRUSHED)
STEAM COAL 6300 KcAL/Kg Reject 6100 KcAL/Kg (CRUSHED)
STEAM COAL 6500 KcAL/Kg Reject 6300 KcAL/Kg (CRUSHED)
Pls send us your SCO,
Application: Anthracite Coal
Requirement Of Anthracite of following specification:
Item: Raw Anthracite
Fixed Carbon (DB): 85%
CV: 6700 kcal/kg min
VM(DB): typical 5%
Moisture (AR): 8%max
Grindability Index: 50min
Please send me your best FOB price
|Smokeless fuel means
fuel which does not produce visible smoke when burned. The term is usually
applied to solid fuels, such as:
**Anthracite **Coke **Charcoal **Hexamine fuel tablets
This article is about fuel coke derived from coal. For
fuel coke derived from petroleum, see Petroleum coke. For other things called
"coke", see Coke (disambiguation).
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal (This is made by heating coal in the absence of air). It is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal. Cokes made from coal are grey, hard, and porous. While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is synthetic. The form known as petroleum coke, or pet coke, is derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes.
Coke is used in preparation of producer gas which is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N2). Producer gas is produced by passing air over red-hot coke. Coke is also used to manufacture water gas.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon
and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile
constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis — the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen (see char and biochar). The advantage of using charcoal instead of just burning wood is the removal of the water and other components, which allows charcoal to burn to a higher temperature, and the fact that the product of its combustion is mainly carbon dioxide, resulting in very little smoke
(regular wood gives off a good amount of steam and unburnt carbon particles - soot - in its smoke).
often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that
has a submetallic luster.
It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest energy density of all types of coal
and is the highest ranking of coal.
Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame.
Anthracite is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation,
and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG), the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector.
Anthracite accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves, and is mined in only a few countries around the world.
China accounts for the majority of global production; other producers are
Russia, Ukraine, North Korea, South Africa, Vietnam, the UK, Australia, Canada and the US.
Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons.
3 History of mining and use
4 Anthracite today
5 Sizing and grading
5.1 High grade
6 Underground fires
7 Major reserves
8 See also
11 Further reading
11.1 Primary sources
12 External links
An American culm pile.
Anthracite derives from the Greek anthrakítēs (ἀνθρακίτης), literally "coal-like". Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal, hard coal, stone coal, dark coal, coffee coal, blind coal (in Scotland), Kilkenny coal (in Ireland), crow coal or craw coal, and black diamond. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite, mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania, and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U.S. markets to distinguish it from its competitors.
Culm has different meanings in British and American English. In British English, "culm" is the imperfect anthracite of north Devon and Cornwall, which was used as a pigment. The term is also used to refer to some Carboniferous rock strata found in both Britain and in the Rhenish hill countries (the Culm Measures). Lastly, it may refer to coal exported from Britain during the 19th century.. In American English, "culm" refers to the waste or slack from anthracite mining, mostly dust and small pieces not suitable for use in home furnaces.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Anthracite (Ibbenbüren, Germany)
Anthracite (near Bay City, Michigan)
Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation.
Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness (2.75–3 on the Mohs scale), its higher relative density of 1.3–1.4, and luster, which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite.
The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Since the 1980s, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for coal power generation in a form of recycling. The practice known as reclamation is being applied to culm piles antedating laws requiring mine owners to restore lands to their approximate original condition.
Chemically, anthracite may be considered as a transition stage between ordinary bituminous coal and graphite, produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former, and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable stresses and pressures, such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. Anthracite is associated with strongly deformed sedimentary rocks that were subjected to higher pressures and temperatures (but short of metamorphic conditions) just as bituminous coal is generally associated with less deformed or flat-lying sedimentary rocks. For example, the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of East-central Pennsylvania are extensions of the same layers of bituminous coal that are mined on the generally flat lying and undeformed sedimentary rocks further west on the Allegheny Plateau of Kentucky and West Virginia, Eastern Ohio, and Western Pennsylvania. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli, the central and eastern portions producing steam coal, coking coal and domestic house coals.
Structurally, anthracite shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. The thermal conductivity is also higher; a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous coal at the same temperature. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal.
Anthracite has a history of use in blast furnaces for iron smelting; however, it lacked the pore space of metallurgical coke, which eventually replaced anthracite.
3. History of mining and use
Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings, New Mexico, circa 1935
In southwest Wales, anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times, when it was mined near Saundersfoot. More recently, large-scale mining of anthracite took place right across the western part of the South Wales Coalfield until the late 20th century. Mining continues but now on a smaller scale.
In the United States, anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcrop of anthracite coal. By 1795, an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River.
Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808, by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on an open grate in a fireplace. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom, and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a viable heating fuel.
In spring 1808, John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth, Pennsylvania, marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. From that first mine, production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in 1917.
Anthracite usage was inhibited by the difficulty of igniting it. This was a particular concern in smelting iron using a blast furnace. With the invention of hot blast in 1828, which used waste heat to preheat combustion air, anthracite became a preferred fuel, accounting for 45% of US pig iron production within 15 years. Anthracite for iron smelting was later displaced by coke.
From the late 19th century until the 1950s, anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern US, until it was supplanted by oil-burning systems and more recently natural gas systems. Many large public buildings, such as schools, were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s.
Anthracite is a "fighting fuel", World War II poster
During the American Civil War, Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders.
The invention of the Wootten firebox enabled locomotives to directly burn anthracite efficiently, particularly waste culm. In the early 20th century US, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives, dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite," and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of Anthracite". Similarly, the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies.
Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed", "poor", "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power, consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour, or less. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France, Switzerland and parts of Germany. As of April 2013, widespread commercial anthracite mining in Wales has now ceased, although a few large open cast sites remain, along with some relatively small drift mining operations.
4. Anthracite today
American football trophy custom-made from anthracite
Anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. In June 2008, the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton.
The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot, making it ideal for this purpose. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media, and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Anthracite is an authorised fuel in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993, meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.
China today mines by far the largest share of global anthracite production, accounting for more than three-quarters of global output. Most Chinese production is of standard-grade anthracite, which is used in power generation. Increased demand in China has made that country into a net importer of the fuel, mostly from Vietnam, another major producer of anthracite for power generation, although increasing domestic consumption in Vietnam means that exports may be scaled back.
Current U.S. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. Of that, about 1.8 million tons were mined in the state of Pennsylvania. Mining of anthracite coal continues to this day in eastern Pennsylvania, and contributes up to 1% to the gross state product. More than 2,000 people were employed in the mining of anthracite coal in 1995. Most of the mining as of that date involved reclaiming coal from slag heaps (waste piles from past coal mining) at nearby closed mines. Some underground anthracite coal is also being mined.
Countries producing HG and UHG anthracite include Russia and South Africa. HG and UHG anthracite are used as a coke or coal substitute in various metallurgical coal applications (sintering, PCI, direct BF charge, pelletizing). It plays an important role in cost reduction in the steel making process and is also used in production of ferro-alloys, silicon-manganese, calcium-carbide and silicon-carbide. South Africa exports lower-quality, higher-ash anthracite to Brazil to be used in steel-making.
5. Sizing and grading
Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves, placed in descending order. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces.
Anthracite is classified into three grades, depending on its carbon content. Standard grade is used as a domestic fuel and in industrial power-generation. The rarer higher grades of anthracite are purer – i.e., they have a higher carbon content – and are used in steel-making and other segments of the metallurgical industries. Technical characteristics of the various grades of anthracite are as follows:
Standard grade anthracite High grade anthracite Ultra High grade anthracite Coke
Moisture (maximum) 15% 15% 13% 5%
Ash (maximum) 20% 15% 12% 14%
Volatiles (maximum) 10% 10% 5% 2%
Fixed carbon (minimum) 73% 80% 85% 84%
Sulfur (maximum) 1% 1% 0.6% 0.8%
Group of breaker boys, from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine
Anthracite is divided by size mainly into applications that need lumps (typically larger than 10 mm) – various industrial processes where it replaces metallurgical coke, and domestic fuel – and those that need fines (less than 10 mm), such as sintering and pelletising.
The common American classification by size is as follows:
Lump, steamboat, egg and stove coals, the latter in two or three sizes, all three being above 1 1⁄2 in (38 mm) size on round-hole screens.
High grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG) anthracite are the highest grades of anthracite coal. They are the purest forms of coal, having the highest degree of coalification, the highest carbon count and energy content and the fewest impurities (moisture, ash and volatiles).
High grade and ultra high grade anthracite are harder than standard grade anthracite, and have a higher relative density. An example of a chemical formula for high-grade anthracite would be C240H90O4NS, representing 94% carbon. UHG anthracite typically has a minimum carbon content of 95%.
They also differ in usage from standard grade anthracite (used mainly for power generation), being employed mainly in metallurgy as a cost-efficient substitute for coke in processes such as sintering and pelletising, as well as pulverised coal injection (PCI) and direct injection into blast furnaces. They can also be used in water purification and domestically as a smokeless fuel.
HG and UHG anthracite account for a small percentage of the total anthracite market. The major producing countries are Russia, Ukraine, Vietnam, South Africa and the US.
Classification Minimum Size (inches) Maximum Size (inches)
Chestnut 7/8 1 1⁄2
Pea 9/16 7/8
Buckwheat 3/8 9/16
Rice 3/16 3/8
Barley 3/32 3/16
The primary sizes used in the United States for domestic heating are Chestnut, Pea, Buckwheat and Rice, with Chestnut and Rice being the most popular. Chestnut and Pea are used in hand fired furnaces while the smaller Rice and Buckwheat are used in automatic stoker furnaces. Rice is currently the most sought after size due to the ease of use and popularity of that type of furnace.
In South Wales a less elaborate classification is adopted, but great care is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning the coal from particles of pyrites in the higher qualities known as best malting coals, which are used for kiln-drying malt.
Anthracite dust can be made into briquettes and is sold in the United Kingdom under trade names such as Phurnacite, Ancit and Taybrite.
6. Underground fires
See also: Coal seam fire
Culm dump of anthracite tailings on fire near Scranton, Pennsylvania
Historically from time to time, underground seams of coal have caught fire, often from careless or unfortunate mining activities. The pocket of ignited coal is fed oxygen by vent paths that have not yet been discovered. These can smolder for years. Commonly, exhaust vents in populated areas are soon sensed and are sealed while vents in uninhabited areas remain undiscovered. Occasionally, vents are discovered via fumes sensed by passers-by, often in forested areas. Attempts to extinguish those remaining have at times been futile, and several such combustion areas exist today. The existence of an underground combustion site can sometimes be identified in the winter where fallen snow is seen to be melted by the warmth conducted from below. Proposals for harnessing this heat as geothermal energy have not been successful.
A vein of anthracite that caught fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania in 1962 has been burning ever since, turning the once-thriving borough into a ghost town.
7. Major reserves
Among current producers, Russia, China and Ukraine have the largest estimated recoverable reserves of anthracite. Other countries with substantial reserves include Vietnam and North Korea.
Geologically, the largest most concentrated anthracite deposit in the world is found in northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. Locally called the Coal Region, the deposit contains 480 square miles of coal bearing rock which originally held 22.8 billion short tons (20.68 billion tonnes) of anthracite. (The geographic region is roughly 100 miles (161 km) in length and 30 miles (48 km) in width.) Because of historical mining and development of the lands overlying the coal, it is estimated that 7 billion short tons (6.3 billion tonnes) of minable reserves remain. The United States also contains several smaller deposits of anthracite, such as those historically mined in Crested Butte, Colorado.
The Groundhog Anthracite Deposit, located in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest previously undeveloped anthracite deposit in the world. It is owned by Australian publicly listed company, Atrum Coal and boasts 1.57 billion tonnes of high grade anthracite.
Anthracites of newer Tertiary or Cretaceous age are found in the Crowsnest Pass part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and at various places in the Andes in Peru.
8. See also
Antratsyt, a town in Ukraine named after a large supply of anthracite found there
Bituminous coal, or "soft" coal; another kind of coal
History of coal miners
History of coal mining
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R. Stefanenko (1983). Coal Mining Technology: Theory and Practice. Society for Mining Metallurgy. ISBN 0-89520-404-5.
Bauerman 1911, p. 105.
World Coal Association – The Coal Resource Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
"International Energy Statistics". www.eia.gov.
"anthracite", The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
Not to be confused with the German Steinkohle or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance, like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well, as opposed to lignite, which is softer.
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Bauerman 1911, pp. 105-106.
Rosenberg 1982, pp. 89
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Bauerman 1911, p. 106.
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"retrieved January 3, 2011". Coaldiver.org. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
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Wikisource "Anthracite". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (9th ed.). 1878. p. 106.
Wikisource Bauerman, Hilary (1911). "Anthracite". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 105–106.
11. Further reading
Chandler, Alfred D. (1972). "Anthracite coal and the beginnings of the industrial revolution in the United States". Business History Review. 46 (2): 141–181.
Hudson Coal Company (1932). The Story of Anthracite. New York. p. 425. — Useful overview of the industry in the 20th century; fair-minded with an operators perspective
Report of the United states coal commission.... (5 vol in 3; 1925) Official US government investigation. online vol 1-2
Tryon, Frederick Gale, and Joseph Henry Willits, eds. What the Coal Commission Found: An Authoritative Summary by the Staff (1925).
General policies committee of anthracite operators. The anthracite coal strike of 1922: A statement of its causes and underlying purposes (1923); Official statement by the operators. online
12. External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anthracite.
Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Anthracite.
HD Video close up of what Anthracite looks like
The Distribution of Pennsylvania Coals
History of anthracite coal mining
"A Jewel In the Crown of Old King Coal Eckley Miners' Village" by Tony Wesolowsky, Pennsylvania Heritage Magazine, Volume XXII, Number 1 – Winter 1996
The Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation
The Anthracite Heritage Museum.
Pennsylvania's Northern Coal Field