Antracite 无煙煤  (Peru, China)        Compiled by: Victor
 Goal:  Use Antracite to Quick Reducing PM-2.5  in Kaohsiung Power Plants & Industrial Furances, 
             with resonable & affordable Price (comparing to existing Coals which paid higher market price)


Air Pollution      Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and  Ammonia (NH3).
    Soot, or Black Carbon, is made up of tiny carbon Particulate Matter .  .

無煙煤是煤品中最清潔的一种煤,使用它可以減少排煙对空污某种程度。PM2.5 中排煙是 造成其中一項要素。

Action Plan (Vic Proposal 計㓰 )

1. Need Info.: Quality (Lab. Report, Pic, Sample),  
                      Quality (Monthly): (Existing Production, Available Capacity, Potential Capacity ),
                      End Users: Application & Existing Mo. Qty.,
                      Facility:  description & pictures, Location (Km to Port... Salaverry, Callao)

2. Trial Loads: 2 x 20' ocean containers, w/ super-sack (1-1.5 mt)  abt 2 x 25mt= 50mt  (Victor's idea )
                         Pass... in Twn.. Run Lab, Run Furance Test onsite

3. CEO/GM: Visit to Kaohsiung-Taichung-Taipei Taiwan... Just when containers arrive Taiwan .
                      On-site furance Test run with passed performance report.  
                      Sign first min. 6 months+ Order with negotiation price
                      (hoping 1, 2, 5, 10 yrs supply term), after 1st Orer enter Opening Bidding.
                       Receiver: Kaohsiung City Mayor Han Kuo-yu
, Taichung City Mayor Lu Shiow-yen

4. Charter Ship:      35,000mt/load 

参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料  参考资料

Exporting / Importing Coal basic Restriction

Restriction: thru Chemical Analysis Report.... avoid contamination (prohibitive material)... \
                    such as   As,    Mercury
..Hg Mercury 

 秘魯無煙煤 Peru Anthracite (Ref.)

USA Anthracite (Ref.)

Brand Name : SOUTHERN
Product Description
Black Anthracite Coal is likewise the most fragile among coal types. Whenever burnt, it delivers an exceptionally hot, blue fire. A gleaming dark shake, anthracite is principally utilized for warming private and business structures in the northeastern district of Pennsylvania, where a lot of it is mined.
It is considered as the cleanest consuming coal accessible on earth. It brings more warmth and less smoke than different coals and is broadly utilized as a part of hand-terminated heaters. Some private home warming stove frameworks still utilize anthracite, which consumes longer than wood. Also celebrated as "hard coal," particularly by train engineers, it contains a high measure of settled carbon and low sulfur and nitrogen. Black Anthracite Coal is ease back consuming and comes with high thickness.

PM2.5  study      

Environmental Impacts
main article
Coal power plants have many associated environmental impacts on the local ecosystem.

The burning of coal releases many pollutants - oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SOx) - and particulate matter.
They also emit greenhouse gases, such as         carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4),
which are known to contribute to global warming and climate change.
To help stunt the emission of these, power plants require technology to reduce the output of these harmful molecules.[9]

Water Use/Pollution
Large quantities of water are often needed to remove impurities from coal,[10] in the process is known as coal washing.
For instance, in China, around one-fifth of the water used in the coal industry is used for this process.[11]
This process helps reduce air pollution, as it eliminates around 50% of the ash content in the coal.
This results in less sulfur dioxide (SOx) being produced, along with less carbon dioxide (CO2) due to higher thermal efficiencies.[9]

When power plants remove water from the environment, fish and other aquatic life can be affected, along with animals relying on these sources.[10] Pollutants also build up in the water that power plants use, so if this water is discharged back into the environment it can potentially harm wildlife there.[10]

The discharge of water from the power plants and coal washing requires monitoring and regulation.
Visit the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for more information on this.

高雄 發電廠Taiwan Power Plant (Kaohsiung)  

The Talin Power Plant (Chinese: 大林發電廠; pinyin: Dàlín Fādiànchǎng) or
Dalin Power Plant is a mix-generation power plant in Siaogang District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Fuel supply
The plant receives its coal supply for the fuel from
Mainland China (48%), Indonesia (37%) and Australia (13%)
to the adjacent Port of Kaohsiung and by conveyor to the plant from the port.

Future expansions
The plant generation units will be replaced by two 800 MW
ultra supercritical units from the current existing low-efficiency units.
The construction permit was given on 25 October 2011 by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and scheduled
for commercial operation on 1 July 2016 and 1 July 2017 respectively.

Official name    大林發電廠
Country    Republic of China
Location    Siaogang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Coordinates    22°32′10″N 120°20′8″ECoordinates: 22°32′10″N 120°20′8″E
Status    Operational
Construction began    1967
Commission date       1969
2017 (1 X 800 MW unit)
Owner(s)        Taipower
Operator(s)    Taipower
Thermal power station
Primary fuel    Coal, oil, natural gas
Power generation
Units operational    1 X 800 MW (coal)
2 X 300 MW (coal)
2 X 375 MW (coal)
500 MW        (coal)
550 MW (LNG and oil)
Make and model    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries    General Electric
Nameplate capacity    2,400 MW

1000 MWe coal plant uses 9000 tonnes of coal per day,

印尼动力煙 Indonesian Steam (or Thermal) Coal     (Ref.)

Steam coal is a coal grade between bituminous coal and anthracite coal, and was once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. Small steam coal nuggets were also used as a fuel for domestic water heating and is now commonly used by utility companies to generate electricity.

Steam coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion. China is the world’s largest coal producer and over two-thirds of China’s electricity comes from steam coal. When steam coal is used for electricity generation, it is usually pulverized and then burned in a furnace below a boiler. The heat from the furnace boils the water to convert to steam which turns the turbines to generate electricity. The thermodynamic efficiency of boiling water to turn the turbines has improved over time. Older coal power plants are significantly less efficient than modern coal power plants and produce higher levels of waste heat, i.e. heat that does not directly effect the boiling of water. Modern steam turbines with advanced thermodynamic features have reached about 35% thermodynamic efficiency for the entire process.

Increasing the combustion temperature can boost this thermodynamic efficiency even further.
At least 40% of the world’s electricity comes from steam coal and almost one-half of the United States’ electricity comes from steam coal. Advances in steam turbine technology including running a boiler at extremely high temperatures and pressures will reach thermodynamic efficiencies of over 45% thus reducing thermodynamic waste.

Although many countries produce steam coal for generating electricity including the US, China, Australia and many others, we focus on Indonesia with its primary steam coal producing areas in Kalimantan, Indonesia as a reliable and trusted source for our steam coal trading platform.

Our Available Coal Specification

We focus on main grades of steam coal for trading between steam coal producers in Indonesia
and power generating utility companies in Asia.

WNU Coal Specification
The above steam coal specifications and steam coal prices are correct at time of publication, are for illustrative purposes only and are therefore legally non-binding.  Actual steam coal specifications and steam coal pricing will be confirmed during the sales contract stage.

煤的一般介紹     Coal Assay  

Coal assay
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia       Jump to navigationJump to search

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Coal analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals.
These methods are used primarily to determine the suitability of coal for coking, power generation or for iron ore smelting in the manufacture of steel.

1    Chemical properties of coal
1.1    Moisture
1.2    Volatile matter
1.3    Ash
1.4    Fixed carbon
2    Physical and mechanical properties
2.1    Relative density
2.2    Particle size distribution
2.3    Float-sink test
2.4    Abrasion testing
3    Special combustion tests
3.1    Specific energy
3.2    Ash fusion test
3.3    Crucible swelling index (free swelling index)
4    Coal classification by rank
5    References
6    External links

1. Chemical properties of coal
Coal comes in four main types or ranks: lignite or brown coal, bituminous coal or black coal, anthracite and graphite. Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) and carbon content.

Moisture is an important property of coal, as all coals are mined wet.
Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analysed quantitatively. Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal:

Surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles or macerals
Hygroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the microfractures of the coal
Decomposition moisture: water held within the coal's decomposed organic compounds
Mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays
Total moisture is analysed by loss of mass between an untreated sample and the sample once analysed. This is achieved by any of the following methods;

Heating the coal with toluene
Drying in a minimum free-space oven at 150 °C (302 °F) within a nitrogen atmosphere
Drying in air at 100 to 105 °C (212 to 221 °F) and relative loss of mass determined
Methods 1 and 2 are suitable with low-rank coals, but method 3 is only suitable for high-rank coals as free air drying low-rank coals may promote oxidation. Inherent moisture is analysed similarly, though it may be done in a vacuum.

Volatile matter
Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal, except for moisture, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. This is usually a mixture of short- and long-chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur. Volatile matter also evaluate the adsorption application of an activated carbon. The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. In Australian and British laboratories this involves heating the coal sample to 900 ± 5 °C (1650 ±10 °F) for 7 min.

Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon, oxygen, sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. It can also give an indication about the quality of coal. Ash content may be determined as air dried basis and on oven dried basis. The main difference between the two is that the latter is determined after expelling the moisture content in the sample of coal

Fixed carbon
The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test, above, from the original mass of the coal sample.

2. Physical and mechanical properties
Relative density
Relative density or specific gravity of the coal depends on the rank of the coal and degree of mineral impurity. Knowledge of the density of each coal play is necessary to determine the properties of composites and blends. The density of the coal seam is necessary for conversion of resources into reserves.

Relative density is normally determined by the loss of a sample's weight in water. This is best achieved using finely ground coal, as bulk samples are quite porous. To determine in-place coal tonnages however, it is important to preserve the void space when measuring the specific gravity.

Particle size distribution
The particle size distribution of milled coal depends partly on the rank of the coal, which determines its brittleness, and on the handling, crushing and milling it has undergone. Generally coal is utilised in furnaces and coking ovens at a certain size, so the crushability of the coal must be determined and its behaviour quantified. It is necessary to know these data before coal is mined, so that suitable crushing machinery can be designed to optimise the particle size for transport and use.

Float-sink test
Coal plies and particles have different relative densities, determined by vitrinite content, rank, ash value/mineral content and porosity. Coal is usually washed by passing it over a bath of liquid of known density. This removes high-ash value particle and increases the saleability of the coal as well as its energy content per unit volume. Thus, coals must be subjected to a float-sink test in the laboratory, which will determine the optimum particle size for washing, the density of the wash liquid required to remove the maximum ash value with the minimum work.

Float-Sink testing is achieved on crushed and pulverised coal in a process similar to metallurgical testing on metallic ore.

Abrasion testing
Abrasion is the property of the coal which describes its propensity and ability to wear away machinery and undergo autonomous grinding. While carbonaceous matter in coal is relatively soft, quartz and other mineral constituents in coal are quite abrasive. This is tested in a calibrated mill, containing four blades of known mass. The coal is agitated in the mill for 12,000 revolutions at a rate of 1,500 revolutions per minute.(I.E 1500 revolution for 8 min.) The abrasion index is determined by measuring the loss of mass of the four metal blades.

3. Special combustion tests
Specific energy
Aside from physical or chemical analyses to determine the handling and pollutant profile of a coal, the energy output of a coal is determined using a bomb calorimeter which measures the specific energy output of a coal during complete combustion. This is required particularly for coals used in steam generation.

Ash fusion test
The behaviour of the coal's ash residue at high temperature is a critical factor in selecting coals for steam power generation. Most furnaces are designed to remove ash as a powdery residue. Coal which has ash that fuses into a hard glassy slag known as clinker is usually unsatisfactory in furnaces as it requires cleaning. However, furnaces can be designed to handle the clinker, generally by removing it as a molten liquid.

Ash fusion temperatures are determined by viewing a moulded specimen of the coal ash through an observation window in a high-temperature furnace. The ash, in the form of a cone, pyramid or cube, is heated steadily past 1000 °C to as high a temperature as possible, preferably 1,600 °C (2,910 °F). The following temperatures are recorded;

Deformation temperature: This is reached when the corners of the mould first become rounded
Softening (sphere) temperature: This is reached when the top of the mould takes on a spherical shape.
Hemisphere temperature: This is reached when the entire mould takes on a hemisphere shape
Flow (fluid) temperature: This is reached when the molten ash collapses to a flattened button on the furnace floor.
Crucible swelling index (free swelling index)
The simplest test to evaluate whether a coal is suitable for production of coke is the free swelling index test. This involves heating a small sample of coal in a standardised crucible to around 800 degrees Celsius (1500 °F).
After heating for a specified time, or until all volatiles are driven off, a small coke button remains in the crucible. The cross sectional profile of this coke button compared to a set of standardised profiles determines the Free Swelling Index.

4. Coal classification by rank
See also: Coal § Ranks
Several international standards classify coals by their rank, where increasing rank corresponds to coal with a higher carbon content. The rank of coal is correlated with its geologic history, as described in Hilt's law.

In the ASTM system,
any coal with more than 69% fixed carbon is classified by its carbon and volatiles content.
Coal with less than 69% fixed carbon is classified by its heating value.
Volatiles and carbon are on a dry mineral free base;
heating value is based on the moisture content as mined, but without any free water.

The ISO has a coal ranking system that also ranks coals;
   the sub-divisions do not align with the ASTM standard.

ASTM Coal Classification [1]
Class    Group    Fixed Carbon %     Volatile Matter %    
Heating Value MJ/kg
                           Dry, mineral free    Dry, mineral free    Moist, mineral free
Meta Anthracite       >98                              <2     
Anthracite             92-98                               2- 8     
Semi Anthracite    86- 92                            8 - 14  
Low       Volatile          78-86                     14-22     
Medium Volatile          69-78                     22-31     
High Volatile A            <69                          >31                           >32.6
High Volatile B                                                                          30.2-32.6
High Volatile C                                                                          26.7-30.2

Subbituminous A                                                                       24.4 - 26.7

Subbituminous B                                                                       22.1 - 24.4
Subbituminous C                                                                       19.3 - 22.1

Lignite A                                                                                   14.7 - 19.3
Lignite B                                                                                 <14.7


PM2.5 与电厂用煤        PM2.5 -  in Coal

Particulates and coal

This article is part of the Coal Issues portal on SourceWatch, a project of CoalSwarm and the Center for Media and Democracy.
See here for help on adding material to CoalSwarm.

Particulate matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, includes the tiny particles of fly ash and dust that are expelled from coal-burning power plants. Particulate pollution is a mixture of soot, smoke, and tiny particles formed in the atmosphere from
sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3).
Fine particles are a mixture of a variety of different compounds and pollutants that originate primarily
from combustion sources such as power plants, but also diesel trucks and buses, cars, etc.
They are sometimes referred to as PM2.5
                  (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter -
                      less than one-hundredth of the width of a human hair).

Fine particles are either emitted directly from these combustion sources or
are formed in the atmosphere through complex oxidation reactions involving gases,
such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) or nitrogen oxides (NOX).
Among particles, fine particles are of gravest concern because they are so tiny that they can be inhaled deeply,
thus evading the human lungs' natural defenses.[1]

1    U.S. Regulations
2    Health effects
2.1    Carcinogen
2.2    Other effects
2.3    CO2 and particulate matter
3    Health costs
3.1    EPA finds Clean Air Act benefits will add up to $2 trillion by 2020, mainly from PM regulations
4    Reports
4.1    2011 American Lung Association report on health effects
5    Soot and global warming
6    Resources
6.1    References
6.2    Related SourceWatch articles
6.3    External resources

1. U.S. Regulations

In 1923, the first electrostatic precipitator was employed in a coal plant, which used electrical fields to remove particulate matter from a boiler's flue gas, like static electricity causing dust to cling to certain types of materials. Electrostatic precipitators, along with baghouses (which work like large industrial-scale vacuum cleaners to capture ash and dust particles in felt or woven fabric bags), have been used to reduce the release of soot-forming particulate matter, but some still escapes, leading to negative health effects.[2]

The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards under the Clean Air Act for six principal pollutants, which are called "criteria" pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, lead, and carbon monoxide. After the EPA sets or revises each standard and a timeline for implementation, the responsibility for meeting the standard falls to the states. Each state must submit an EPA-approved plan that shows how it will meet the standards and deadlines. These state plans are known as State Implementation Plans (SIPs)." [3]

Since 1997 coarse (diameter greater than 2.5 μm) and fine (diameter between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μm) particles have been regulated by the EPA, but ultrafine particles (diameter less than 0.1 μm) remain unregulated.[4] Roughly 80% of the ash falls into an ash hopper, but the rest of the ash then gets carried into the atmosphere to become fly ash.[5]

A 2009 court ruling concluded that the EPA standards for the amount of soot permissible in the air on an annual average ignored the advice of scientific advisers by maintaining the standard established in 1997 and must be rewritten. That limit was 15 micrograms per cubic meter of air.[6]

In a motion filed on December 7, 2010, the EPA asked for an extension in the current court-ordered schedule for issuing the new rules, which would cut emissions of pollutants including mercury and soot. EPA is under court order to issue final rules on January 16, 2011, but is seeking to extend the schedule to finalize the rules by April 2012.[7]

On June 15, 2012, EPA proposed to lower standards for particulate matter to between 12 and 13 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3). The agency is also taking “public comment on alternative annual standard levels down to 11 μg/m3.”

In December 2012 the EPA issued its final soot rules, tightening the federal soot standards by 20 percent - the most protective measure laid out in its June 2012 draft rule (12 micrograms per cubic meter of air). The agency will determine which areas are out of attainment in 2014, and the communities will then have six years to comply. The EPA estimates that 66 of the nation’s 3,033 counties will be found in violation of the new standard. It projects seven — all in California — will still be out of compliance by 2020.[8]

2. Health effects
2.1 Carcinogen
In October 2013 the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer said both air pollution and "particulate matter" would now be classified among its Group 1 human carcinogens. They cited data indicating that in 2010, over 220,000 deaths from lung cancer worldwide resulted from air pollution, and said there was also convincing evidence it increases the risk of bladder cancer. Depending on the level of exposure in different parts of the world, the risk was found to be similar to that of breathing in second-hand tobacco smoke.[9]

2.2 Other effects
Studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter is also related to an increase of respiratory and cardiac mortality. Particulate matter can irritate small airways in the lungs, which can lead to increased problems with asthma, chronic bronchitis, airway obstruction, and gas exchange. Several studies have also shown a correlation between coal-related air pollutants and stroke. In Medicare patients, ambient levels of PM2.5 have been correlated with cerebrovascular disease, and PM10 with hospital admission for ischemic stroke, which accounts for eighty-seven percent of all strokes. The size and chemical composition of these particles affects the impacts on human health. [10] [11]

According to a report by the Clean Air Task Force, the health effects from fine particle air pollution include death, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, asthma attacks, and a variety of lesser respiratory symptoms. Key findings include:[12][1]

Fine particle pollution from U.S. power plants cuts short the lives of over 30,000 people each year.
In more polluted areas, fine particle pollution can shave several years off its victims' lives.
Hundreds of thousands of Americans suffer from asthma attacks, cardiac problems and upper and lower respiratory problems associated with fine particles from power plants.
The elderly, children, and those with respiratory disease are most severely impacted by fine particle pollution from power plants.
According to the American Lung Association, particle pollution can damage the body in ways similar to cigarette smoking, helping explain why particle pollution can cause heart attacks and strokes. However, even short-term exposure to particle pollution can kill: peaks or spikes in particle pollution can last for hours to days. Deaths can occur on the very day that particle levels are high, or within one to two months afterward.[13]

The EPA (2010) has concluded that fine particle pollution poses serious health threats:[13]

Causes early death (both short-term and long-term exposure)
Causes cardiovascular harm (e.g. heart attacks, strokes, heart disease, congestive heart failure)
Likely to cause respiratory harm (e.g. worsened asthma, worsened COPD, inflammation)
May cause cancer
May cause reproductive and developmental harm
A 2010 yearlong Pittsburgh Post-Gazette investigation found that Allegheny and Westmoreland counties and the rest of southwestern Pennsylvania - which are near multiple coal plants - show higher mortality rates for multiple sclerosis. The newspaper notes that studies suggest particulate matter pollution can trigger, aggravate or cause relapses of the autoimmune disease.[14]

2.3 CO2 and particulate matter
A 2009 study, “Enhancement of Local Air Pollution by Urban CO2 Domes,” published in Environmental Science & Technology by Mark Z. Jacobson, found that domes of increased carbon dioxide concentrations – discovered to form above cities more than a decade ago – cause local temperature increases that in turn increase the amounts of local air pollutants, raising concentrations of health-damaging ground-level ozone as well as particulate matter in urban air.

According to Jacobson: "Warming increases water vapor, and both water vapor and higher temperatures increase ozone where the ozone is already high but have less effect where the ozone is low. Carbon dioxide domes over cities increase temperatures over the cities above and beyond the heat island effect, and these higher temperatures increase water vapor, and both higher water vapor and higher temperatures increase the rates of chemical air pollution production over cities relative to rural areas. The results suggest a causal nature of increased air pollution mortality due to increased carbon dioxide where the air pollution is already high. Thus, controlling CO2 emissions at the local level will reduce air pollution and the resulting air pollution mortality."

Jacobson’s estimates that “reducing local CO2 may reduce 300-1000 premature air pollution mortalities/yr in the U.S. and 50-100/yr in California, even if CO2 in adjacent regions is not controlled.”

3. Health costs
In 2010, Abt Associates issued a study commissioned by the Clean Air Task Force, a nonprofit research and advocacy organization, quantifying the deaths and other health effects attributable to fine particle pollution from coal-fired power plants.[15] The study found that over 13,000 deaths and tens of thousands of cases of chronic bronchitis, acute bronchitis, asthma-related episodes and asthma-related emergency room visits, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, chronic lung disease, peneumonia each year are attributable to fine particle pollution from U.S. coal-fired power plants. Abt assigned a value of $7,300,000 to each 2010 mortality, based on a range of government and private studies. Valuations of illnesses ranged from $52 for an asthma episode to $440,000 for a case of chronic bronchitis.[16]

Click here to see the total estimated heath effects and costs for each U.S. coal power plant.

3.1    EPA finds Clean Air Act benefits will add up to $2 trillion by 2020, mainly from PM regulations

Avoided Health Impacts: 2010 and 2020 (projected)
According to an EPA report released in March 2011, "The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020", the annual dollar value of benefits of air quality improvements from 1990 to 2020 will reach a level of approximately $2.0 trillion in 2020. The benefits would be achieved as a result of Clean Air Act Amendment-related programs and regulatory compliance actions, estimated to cost approximately $65 billion by 2020.

Most of the benefits (about 85 percent) are attributable to reductions in premature mortality associated with reductions in ambient particulate matter: "as a result, we estimate that cleaner air will, by 2020, prevent 230,000 cases of premature mortality in that year" (Introduction). The remaining benefits are roughly equally divided among three categories of human health and environmental improvement: preventing premature mortality associated with ozone exposure; preventing morbidity, including acute myocardial infarctions and chronic bronchitis; and improving the quality of ecological resources and other aspects of the environment.

According to the report: "The very wide margin between estimated benefits and costs, and the results of our uncertainty analysis, suggest that it is extremely unlikely that the monetized benefits of the CAAA over the 1990 to 2020 period reasonably could be less than its costs, under any alternative set of assumptions we can conceive. Our central benefits estimate exceeds costs by a factor of more than 30 to one, and the high benefits estimate exceeds costs by 90 times. Even the low benefits estimate exceeds costs by about three to one."

4. Reports
4.1  2011 American Lung Association report on health effects
In March 2011, the American Lung Association released the report,
"Toxic Air: The Case for Cleaning Up Coal-fired Power Plants," on the hazardous air pollutants emitted from power plants.
Key findings from the report included:

Coal-fired power plants produce more hazardous air pollution in the United States than any other industrial pollution sources;
More than 400 coal-fired power plants located in 46 states across the country release in excess of 386,000 tons of hazardous air pollutants into the atmosphere each year;
Particulate matter pollution from power plants is estimated to kill approximately 13,000 people a year.
Most coal-fired plants are concentrated in the Midwest and Southeast.

5  Soot and global warming

Particulate pollution is a mixture of soot, smoke, and tiny particles formed in the atmosphere from
sulfur dioxide    (SO2),
nitrogen oxides (NOx) and
ammonia          (NH3).

Soot, or black carbon, is made up of tiny carbon particulate matter
that contributes to global warming by absorbing heat in the atmosphere and reducing albedo, the reflection of sunlight, when deposited on snow and ice. In a paper published in May 2008 in Nature Geoscience, researchers found that black carbon soot may play a larger role than previously thought in global warming.[17] A 2010 USAID study identified black carbon as the second or third largest contributor to the current anthropogenic global warming, surpassed only by carbon dioxide and methane.[18]

6    Resources
6.1    References
 "Coal Plant pollution kills 30,000 people each year" EcoMall, accessed August 2010.
 "Key Issues & Mandates: Secure & Reliable Energy Supplies - Coal Becomes a 'Future Fuel'” NETL, accessed May 2010.
 "NAAQS" Sierra Club, accessed July 2010.
 Nel, A. "Air Pollution-Related Illness: Effects of Particles.: Science, 308(5723), 804-806. (2005, May 6).
 Schobert, H. H. Energy and Society. New York: Taylor & Francis, 241–255. (2002).
 Juliet Eilperin, "EPA tightens soot rules by 20 percent," Washington Post, Dec. 14, 2012.
 "EPA Seeks New Timetable for Reducing Pollution from Boilers and Incinerators/Agency committed to developing rules that are protective, cost effective and based on sound science" EPA, Dec. 7, 2010.
 Juliet Eilperin, "EPA tightens soot rules by 20 percent," Washington Post, Dec. 14, 2012.
 "IARC: Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths," IARC, Oct 17, 2013.
 Alan Lockwood, Kristen Welker-Hood, Molly Rauch, Barbara Gottlieb,"Coal's Assault on Human Health" Physicians for Social Responsibility Report, November 2009
 Clean Air Task Force,"Dirty Air, Dirty Power: Mortality and Health Damage Due to Air Pollution from Power Plants", June 2004
 Clean Air Task Force,"Dirty Air, Dirty Power: Mortality and Health Damage Due to Air Pollution from Power Plants", June 2004
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 "The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from America's Dirtiest Energy Source," Clean Air Task Force, September 2010.
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6.2    Related SourceWatch articles
Air pollution from coal-fired power plants
Campus coal plants
Clean Air Act
Clean Air Interstate Rule
Clean Air Watch
Clean Coal Technology
Clean Water Act
Clear Skies Initiative
Climate change / Global warming
Climate impacts of coal plants
Coal and jobs in the United States
Coal and transmission
Coal-fired power plant capacity and generation
Coal moratorium
Coal phase-out
Coal plant conversion projects
Coal plants near residential areas
Coal sludge
Coal Studies
Coal waste
Comparative electrical generation costs
Dispelling the myths of the acid rain story
Divestment and shareholder action on coal
Environmental impacts of coal
Environmental Protection Agency
EPA Coal Plant Settlements
Existing U.S. Coal Plants
External costs of coal
Fly ash
Health effects of coal
Heavy metals and coal
Mercury and coal
New Source Review
Oldest existing coal plants
Opposition to existing coal plants
Radioactivity and coal
Retrofit vs. Phase-Out of Coal-Fired Power Plants
Scrubber Retrofits at Existing Coal Plants
State coal subsidies
Sulfur dioxide and coal
Thermal pollution from coal plants
United States and coal
U.S. Coal Capacity by Year
Water consumption from coal plants
6.3    External resources